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Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World,

2 Prelude to Revolution: The 18 th Century Crisis Colonial Wars & Fiscal Crises  The Cost of War  Cost of maintaining defense of colonies = expensive  War debts strap European powers The Enlightenment and the old order  Enlightenment – scientific revolution meets politics & religion  Intellectual Challenge to Old Order – hereditary rulers & the church  Hobbes – Social contract, we surrender certain rights to government in exchange for order  Locke – Government duty to protect life/liberty/property, otherwise rebel  Rousseau – Governments operate with the consent of the governed  Monarchs and the Enlightenment – enlightened despots – benevolent dictators

3 Prelude to Revolution: The 18 th Century Crisis Prelude to Revolution: The 18 th Century Crisis… continued  The Community of Belief Systems  Many channels of communication open – pamphlets, salons, correspondence  Expanding middle class – high literacy rate – coffee & tea houses  Enlightenment and the New World  America = unrestrained by Europe’s corruption would thrive  Benjamin Franklin – writer, inventor, representative, ambassador  The Counter Enlightenment – driven by Catholic nations Folk Cultures and Popular Protest  Reform and Popular Culture  Tax reforms met with riots and protests – prefer status quo  Reformers look to replace non-productive festivals  Meet with popular uprisings

4 The America Revolution, Frontiers & Taxes  British Frontier Policy  Westward push seen as future cost of conflict  Ottawa chief Pontiac fought British over policies  Proclamation of 1763 – est. western limits  New Colonial Tax & Commercial Policies – Americans enjoyed foreign trade  Colonial Protests  Stamp Act of 1765 – every document was taxed  Women from prominent colonial families organized boycotts  Reaction to boycotts threatens liberties  Boston Massacre – fueled popular support for independence  East India Co monopoly on tea – met with Tea Party, and martial law

5 The America Revolution, The America Revolution, … continued The Course of Revolution,  Continental Congress  Created a currency, declared independence, and organized an army  George Washington – Virginia planter & veteran of French Indian war  Joseph Brant – Mohawk chief on side of British  British defeat at Saratoga – Mohawk go to Canada, French join American side  Yorktown courtesy of French support  Treaty of Paris – unconditional independence  “Common Sense” – Thomas Paine – made argument for independence The Construction of Republican Political Structures, to 1800  Europeans lived vicariously through U.S. – constitutions published in Europe  2 nd Continental Congress = Articles of Confederation  One House legislature  No executive branch  Creating a new Government: Constitutional Convention – 3 branches  Limits of Democracy – still slavery and limited women’s rights

6 The French Revolution, French Society and Fiscal Crisis  Estates General – each has one vote  1 st Estate – Church – 10% of land  2 nd Estate – Nobles – 30% of land  3 rd Estate – 98% of Population, 33% of land, tied to economy  1780 onward – poor harvests  The Poor – 80% of population – Les Miserables, increase in bread price = riot  The Politics of Debts and Taxes – Louis XVI (& Marie Antoinette) inherit debt but support US Protest turns to Revolution,  3 rd Estate Acts – after 6 weeks of deadlock  Tennis Court Oath – becomes National Assembly  33% unemployed and hungry  The Bastille Falls  Fear leads to Bastille and heads on pikes  Great Fear spreads throughout France – not a good time to be rich

7 The French Revolution, The French Revolution, … continued  Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen – similar to US  The Women of Paris Act – march to Versailles, bring back royals  Revolutionary Changes Begin – Church’s land seized, neighbors worried The Reign of Terror,  September Massacres – one way to clean out the prison population  Guillotine – democratic & used on Louis XVI +40,000  The Jacobins  Girondists & the Mountain  Maximilien Robespierre – king of the hill  Women & the Revolution – women’s sacrifices go unrewarded  The end of Robespierre – when he dies, the end is near

8 The French Revolution, The French Revolution, … continued Reaction and the Rise of Napoleon, – coup détente – popular authoritarianism  France under Napoleon  1801 – Civil Code: Protection for persons and property  1804 – Concordat with Church & declared himself emperor  Free speech limited  French Expansion and Defeat  Starts off undefeated in battle  Continental System – unified economic Europe – Britain  Iberian war – King of Portugal to Brazil  Russian Scorched Earth Policy – losses 95% of Army  Loses and exiled to Elba, leaves for 100 days – Waterloo  St. Helena in South Atlantic

9 Revolution Spreads, Conservatives Respond, The Haitian Revolution, – while the cat’s away…  Accounted for 66% of French tropical imports and 33% of French Foreign trade  Gens de Couleur (free mixed race) sent delegates to Estates General for greater freedoms  The Haitian Revolution begins – colonial government weakened  Rebelling slaves killed & destroyed plantations  Toussaint L’Ouverture takes military leadership  Defeats British expeditionary force and next door Spanish  Napoleon sent forces, Toussaint ends up in Prison, eventually Haiti The Congress of Vienna & Conservative Retrenchment,  Balance of Power, reseat Iberian monarchies, reestablish borders  The Holy Alliance – Austria/Russia/Prussia Nationalism, Reform, and Revolution,  Greek Independence – from Ottomans  Revolutionary Fears in France and Britain  The Revolutions of 1848 – Paris/Vienna/Rome/Berlin looking for self-determination


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