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Conformity, compliance, and obedience

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1 Conformity, compliance, and obedience

2 Social influence Vs. persuasion Doesn’t have to be intentional
At least one person affecting the attitudes or behaviors of another Social influence

3 Types of influence 2 types: 3 forms:
Informational (want to be correct) Normative (want to be accepted) 3 forms: Obedience Compliance Conformity Types of influence

4 Conformity examples 0kWRGE
XhxcTs&feature=plcp&context=C33a6dca UDOEgsToPDskKsN-LaYflZQlft9OK8NUaQ Conformity examples

5 Early conformity studies
Sherif, 1935 Autokinetic effect (estimates of how far a light moves) Early conformity studies

6 Asch, 1951 Judging the length of lines (video from earlier)
76% of people conformed and gave a clearly wrong answer at least 1 out of 12 times Bond & Smith meta-analysis, 122 studies in 17 countries. More conformity if: Bigger majority More women The majority is your ingroup More ambiguous stimuli More collectivist countries Public compliance vs. private acceptance E Asch, 1951

7 Descriptive vs. injunctive norms
What people do vs. what we think is appropriate Problems with normative campaigns to change behaviors Help the hotel save energy Help save the environment Partner with us to help save the environment Help save the environment for future generations "Join your fellow citizens in helping to save the environment" Descriptive vs. injunctive norms

8 Energy norms Descriptive: “energy usage was above or below average”
Injunctive: add a smiley or frowny face Energy norms

9 STONE : SCULPTOR ::  (A) brick : house            (B) words : poet            (C) bust : portrait            (D) scalpel : surgeon            (E) mine : ore 

10    INVARIABLE : CHANGE             (A) incurable : disease            (B) unfathomable : depth            (C) extraneous : proposition            (D) ineffable : expression            (E) variegated : appearance 

11 Social impact theory (Latane, 1981)
People are influenced as a multiplicative function of the Strength Immediacy, and Number of others Social impact theory (Latane, 1981)

12 Application 1: Conformity and Imitation
Perception of “consensus” occurs here, according to Asch, who used Swarthmore undergraduates. A replication of Asch’s study with high school students “Craning and Gawking”

13 Application 2: Social Psychophysics of Embarrassment
Latané & Harkins, 1976 Porter, 1939

14 Application 3: Social Impact of News Events
Bassett & Latané Read a newspaper Pointed at articles they read IVs: Number of people involved Distance from Columbus, O DVs: Which articles? How long did they spend on it.

15 Application 4: Tipping in Restaurants
Freeman, Walker, Borden, & Latané (1975) 1,159 evening diners in Columbus, Ohio Party size varied naturally DV: size of tip

16 Dynamic social impact theory (Latane, 1996)
The Four Cs What culture is, is determined by: Clustering: Group members will become more similar to those closer to them. Correlation: Emergent associations between elements over time (this results in “culture”). How cultures change is determined by: Consolidation: Reduction in diversity within the group (the tendency toward majority influence). Continuing diversity: the spatial distribution of communication “protects” some minority viewpoints. There is rarely complete obliteration of the minority.


18 Headache remedies Weiss, 1994
Do a couple weiss charts (haven’t scanned yet) Headache remedies Weiss, 1994

19 Country music purchases
Weiss, 1994

20 Language

21 Language example “Stronger” languages grow.
Physical and other features “protect” language diversity. Languages with more and more dispersed speakers grow. Languages cluster at various levels. Language correlates with other elements of culture or identity. Languages consolidate (15, <6800). Language example

22 Other evidence Face-to-face discussions Computer discussions
Dorm studies Neighborhoods and retirement communities Other evidence

23 How do we get deviates to go along with the group?
First, try to convince them Then, ignore them How do we get deviates to go along with the group?

24 Cialdini’s influence techniques
Reciprocity Consistency Social proof Liking Authority Scarcity Cialdini’s influence techniques

25 Milgram’s obedience study
Shock the “learner” 63% went all the way in the basic paradigm Factors affecting obedience Proximity of the victim Empathetic cures Cognitive narrowing Power of the institution Presence and legitimacy of the authority figure Conflicting messages Group effects Milgram’s obedience study

26 Get similar results Across countries Across time South Africa, 87.5%
Jordan, 73% and 62.5% Austria, 80% Spain, 50% Across time y7Y Get similar results

27 Recent obedience examples
QXIjYVU&list=UUlQzKGw31DagWzBYebtlt Ng&index=23&feature=plcp big8ttY&feature=plcp&context=C328b3ba UDOEgsToPDskLmEa97y3gixHn1e7TcHiTf Why did they obey? Recent obedience examples

28 Don’t feel personally responsible (“just following orders”)
Respect for authority Awkward to break rules Do it in small steps Reasons people obey

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