5Early conformity studies Sherif, 1935Autokinetic effect (estimates of how far a light moves)Early conformity studies
6Asch, 1951 Judging the length of lines (video from earlier) 76% of people conformed and gave a clearly wrong answer at least 1 out of 12 timesBond & Smith meta-analysis, 122 studies in 17 countries. More conformity if:Bigger majorityMore womenThe majority is your ingroupMore ambiguous stimuliMore collectivist countriesPublic compliance vs. private acceptanceEAsch, 1951
7Descriptive vs. injunctive norms What people do vs. what we think is appropriateProblems with normative campaigns to change behaviorsHelp the hotel save energyHelp save the environmentPartner with us to help save the environmentHelp save the environment for future generations"Join your fellow citizens in helping to save the environment"Descriptive vs. injunctive norms
8Energy norms Descriptive: “energy usage was above or below average” Injunctive: add a smiley or frowny faceEnergy norms
11Social impact theory (Latane, 1981) People are influenced as a multiplicative function of theStrengthImmediacy, andNumber of othersSocial impact theory (Latane, 1981)
12Application 1: Conformity and Imitation Perception of “consensus” occurs here, according to Asch, who used Swarthmore undergraduates.A replication of Asch’s study with high school students“Craning and Gawking”
13Application 2: Social Psychophysics of Embarrassment Latané & Harkins, 1976Porter, 1939
14Application 3: Social Impact of News Events Bassett & LatanéRead a newspaperPointed at articles they readIVs:Number of people involvedDistance from Columbus, ODVs: Which articles?How long did they spend on it.
15Application 4: Tipping in Restaurants Freeman, Walker, Borden, & Latané (1975)1,159 evening diners in Columbus, OhioParty size varied naturallyDV: size of tip
16Dynamic social impact theory (Latane, 1996) The Four CsWhat culture is, is determined by:Clustering: Group members will become more similar to those closer to them.Correlation: Emergent associations between elements over time (this results in “culture”).How cultures change is determined by:Consolidation: Reduction in diversity within the group (the tendency toward majority influence).Continuing diversity: the spatial distribution of communication “protects” some minority viewpoints. There is rarely complete obliteration of the minority.
21Language example “Stronger” languages grow. Physical and other features “protect” language diversity.Languages with more and more dispersed speakers grow.Languages cluster at various levels.Language correlates with other elements of culture or identity.Languages consolidate (15, <6800).Language example
25Milgram’s obedience study Shock the “learner”63% went all the way in the basic paradigmFactors affecting obedienceProximity of the victimEmpathetic curesCognitive narrowingPower of the institutionPresence and legitimacy of the authority figureConflicting messagesGroup effectsMilgram’s obedience study
26Get similar results Across countries Across time South Africa, 87.5% Jordan, 73% and 62.5%Austria, 80%Spain, 50%Across timey7YGet similar results
27Recent obedience examples QXIjYVU&list=UUlQzKGw31DagWzBYebtlt Ng&index=23&feature=plcpbig8ttY&feature=plcp&context=C328b3ba UDOEgsToPDskLmEa97y3gixHn1e7TcHiTfWhy did they obey?Recent obedience examples
28Don’t feel personally responsible (“just following orders”) Respect for authorityAwkward to break rulesDo it in small stepsReasons people obey