Presentation on theme: "Conformity, compliance, and obedience. Social influence Vs. persuasion Doesn’t have to be intentional At least one person affecting the attitudes or behaviors."— Presentation transcript:
Conformity, compliance, and obedience
Social influence Vs. persuasion Doesn’t have to be intentional At least one person affecting the attitudes or behaviors of another
Types of influence 2 types: ◦Informational (want to be correct) ◦Normative (want to be accepted) 3 forms: ◦Obedience ◦Compliance ◦Conformity
Early conformity studies Sherif, 1935 Autokinetic effect (estimates of how far a light moves)
Asch, 1951 Judging the length of lines (video from earlier) 76% of people conformed and gave a clearly wrong answer at least 1 out of 12 times Bond & Smith meta-analysis, 122 studies in 17 countries. More conformity if: ◦Bigger majority ◦More women ◦The majority is your ingroup ◦More ambiguous stimuli ◦More collectivist countries Public compliance vs. private acceptance E E
Descriptive vs. injunctive norms What people do vs. what we think is appropriate Problems with normative campaigns to change behaviors Help the hotel save energy Help save the environment Partner with us to help save the environment Help save the environment for future generations "Join your fellow citizens in helping to save the environment"
Energy norms Descriptive: “energy usage was above or below average” Injunctive: add a smiley or frowny face
STONE : SCULPTOR :: (A) brick : house (B) words : poet (C) bust : portrait (D) scalpel : surgeon (E) mine : ore
Social impact theory (Latane, 1981) People are influenced as a multiplicative function of the ◦Strength ◦Immediacy, and ◦Number of others
Application 1: Conformity and Imitation Perception of “consensus” occurs here, according to Asch, who used Swarthmore undergraduates. “Craning and Gawking” A replication of Asch’s study with high school students
Application 2: Social Psychophysics of Embarrassment Porter, 1939 Latané & Harkins, 1976
Application 3: Social Impact of News Events Bassett & Latané Read a newspaper Pointed at articles they read IVs: ◦Number of people involved ◦Distance from Columbus, O DVs: Which articles? ◦How long did they spend on it.
Application 4: Tipping in Restaurants Freeman, Walker, Borden, & Latané (1975) ◦1,159 evening diners in Columbus, Ohio ◦Party size varied naturally ◦DV: size of tip
Dynamic social impact theory (Latane, 1996) The Four Cs ◦What culture is, is determined by: Clustering: Group members will become more similar to those closer to them. Correlation: Emergent associations between elements over time (this results in “culture”). ◦How cultures change is determined by: Consolidation: Reduction in diversity within the group (the tendency toward majority influence). Continuing diversity: the spatial distribution of communication “protects” some minority viewpoints. There is rarely complete obliteration of the minority.
Headache remedies Weiss, 1994
Country music purchases Weiss, 1994
Language example “Stronger” languages grow. Physical and other features “protect” language diversity. Languages with more and more dispersed speakers grow. Languages cluster at various levels. Language correlates with other elements of culture or identity. Languages consolidate (15,000 <6800).
Other evidence Face-to-face discussions Computer discussions Dorm studies Neighborhoods and retirement communities
How do we get deviates to go along with the group? First, try to convince them Then, ignore them
Milgram’s obedience study Shock the “learner” 63% went all the way in the basic paradigm Factors affecting obedience ◦Proximity of the victim Empathetic cures Cognitive narrowing ◦Power of the institution ◦Presence and legitimacy of the authority figure ◦Conflicting messages ◦Group effects
Get similar results Across countries ◦South Africa, 87.5% ◦Jordan, 73% and 62.5% ◦Austria, 80% ◦Spain, 50% Across time ◦http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwqNP9HR y7Yhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwqNP9HR y7Y
Recent obedience examples QXIjYVU&list=UUlQzKGw31DagWzBYebtlt Ng&index=23&feature=plcp QXIjYVU&list=UUlQzKGw31DagWzBYebtlt Ng&index=23&feature=plcp big8ttY&feature=plcp&context=C328b3ba UDOEgsToPDskLmEa97y3gixHn1e7TcHiTf big8ttY&feature=plcp&context=C328b3ba UDOEgsToPDskLmEa97y3gixHn1e7TcHiTf Why did they obey?
Reasons people obey Don’t feel personally responsible (“just following orders”) Respect for authority Awkward to break rules Do it in small steps