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Social Influence. Social Influence Outline I. Conformity I. Conformity II. Motivation II. Motivation III. Minority influence III. Minority influence IV.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Influence. Social Influence Outline I. Conformity I. Conformity II. Motivation II. Motivation III. Minority influence III. Minority influence IV."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Influence

2 Social Influence Outline I. Conformity I. Conformity II. Motivation II. Motivation III. Minority influence III. Minority influence IV. Obedience to authority IV. Obedience to authority

3 Social Influence How individual behavior is influenced by other people and groups How individual behavior is influenced by other people and groups

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5 I. CONFORMITY I. Conformity: I. Conformity: Tendency to change our behavior/beliefs in ways that are consistent with group norms Tendency to change our behavior/beliefs in ways that are consistent with group norms Norms: Accepted ways of thinking, feeling, behaving Norms: Accepted ways of thinking, feeling, behaving Why do we follow norms? Why do we follow norms? Make life easier Make life easier Rewards for following norms Rewards for following norms Internalization of norms Internalization of norms

6 A. Norm of reciprocity A. Norm of reciprocity When someone provides you with a benefit, it is appropriate for you to return the favor When someone provides you with a benefit, it is appropriate for you to return the favor EXAMPLE: Regan (1971) EXAMPLE: Regan (1971) “Coke” study “Coke” study B. Norm of social commitment B. Norm of social commitment Keeping our promises and honoring our commitments Keeping our promises and honoring our commitments C. Conforming to group norms C. Conforming to group norms Tendency to follow attitudes and behavior of the group Tendency to follow attitudes and behavior of the group

7 1) Informational influence 1) Informational influence Look to others for information Look to others for information EXAMPLE: Sherif's (1936) autokinetic effect studies EXAMPLE: Sherif's (1936) autokinetic effect studies Why do we conform to the group?

8 Autokinetic effect: the stationary dot of light will seem to move It moved about 3.5 inches

9 What if people make their judgments with others, and state estimates aloud? Looks like 1 inch I’d say 2 inches7.5 inches

10 Conformity! Initially, they differ; but over trials, they converge Person A Person B Person C Convergence Alone Group Session 1 Group Session 3 Group Session 2 Average distance estimates

11 "Do as most do, and [people] will speak well of thee" "Do as most do, and [people] will speak well of thee" -Thomas Fuller 2) Normative influence 2) Normative influence We want to be liked, accepted and to fit in We want to be liked, accepted and to fit in We don’t want to look foolish We don’t want to look foolish EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE: Asch’s (1950s) conformity studies Asch’s (1950s) conformity studies Why do we conform to the group?

12 Asch's (1955) conformity studies Standard LineComparison Lines Trial 1

13 1 2 3 Standard LineComparison Lines Trial 2 Asch's (1955) conformity studies

14 1 2 3 Standard LineComparison Lines Trial 3 Asch's (1955) conformity studies

15 Procedures: Procedures: One subject, six or more confederates One subject, six or more confederates Which line is the same length as the standard? Which line is the same length as the standard? People reported answers out loud, one at a time People reported answers out loud, one at a time Subject always last Subject always last On 12 of 18 trials, confederates answered incorrectly On 12 of 18 trials, confederates answered incorrectly Asch’s (1950s) conformity studies Results:

16 The majority is powerful …but what about... Galileo Galileo Susan B Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton Martin Luther King Jr.

17 Majority and Minority Influence Majority influence: Majority influence: Larger group influences smaller subgroup or individuals Larger group influences smaller subgroup or individuals Minority influence: Minority influence: The individual or smaller group influences the larger group The individual or smaller group influences the larger group

18 Moscovici & Minority Influence Reversing the traditional Asch situation Reversing the traditional Asch situation Majority of SS and minority of confederates Majority of SS and minority of confederates Example study: Example study: Showed SS blue slides Showed SS blue slides Confederates argue slides are green Confederates argue slides are green Final judgements: 8.4% shifted judgements Final judgements: 8.4% shifted judgements

19 Factors Affecting Minority Influence Consistency Consistency Investment Investment Self-interest Self-interest Ingroup vs outgroup members Ingroup vs outgroup members Flexibility and consistency Flexibility and consistency

20 Minority Influence and Status Is early conformity important? Is early conformity important? It may earn some ‘status’ with group members It may earn some ‘status’ with group members Hollander’s studies on early conformity Hollander’s studies on early conformity 5 person groups; complex decisional task 5 person groups; complex decisional task Confederate demonstrated early conformity or not Confederate demonstrated early conformity or not Confederate showed nonconformity Confederate showed nonconformity Results: Results: Minority influence increased over time Minority influence increased over time Minority influence greater for early conformists Minority influence greater for early conformists

21 Theory of Idiosyncrasy Credits (Hollander) To dissent effectively, you must first earn the right by paying conformity dues called idiosyncrasy credits. To dissent effectively, you must first earn the right by paying conformity dues called idiosyncrasy credits. High status have more idiosyncrasy credits than low status High status have more idiosyncrasy credits than low status

22 Reconciling Hollander and Moscovici Different viewpoints: Different viewpoints: Hollander: early conformity is good Hollander: early conformity is good Moscovici: consistent nonconformity is important Moscovici: consistent nonconformity is important

23 Compliance versus Conversion Majority influence: Majority influence: Compliance (direct influence) Compliance (direct influence) Minority influence: Minority influence: Conversion (indirect influence) Conversion (indirect influence)

24 Example study (Nemeth & Wachtler, 1974) 5 person groups 5 person groups Make award in personal injury case Make award in personal injury case Confederate argued for low award Confederate argued for low award Results: Results: Direct influence: Direct influence: Final vote: majority unchanged- gave big award Final vote: majority unchanged- gave big award Indirect influence: Indirect influence: On second case gave significantly smaller awards On second case gave significantly smaller awards

25 Obedience Willingness to obey “legitimate” authority Willingness to obey “legitimate” authority Example: Milgram obedience studies Example: Milgram obedience studies Procedures: Procedures: ‘Teacher’ & ‘Student’: learn word pairs ‘Teacher’ & ‘Student’: learn word pairs ‘Teacher’ required to administer shock to ‘learner’ for errors ‘Teacher’ required to administer shock to ‘learner’ for errors

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27 The Milgram Experiments: Results Over 60% punished learners with the highest shock intensity (450 volts) Over 60% punished learners with the highest shock intensity (450 volts)

28 Peer Teaching of Motivation Theories Assignment: Assignment: Each group is responsible for teaching the theory to the class and demonstrating the link to leadership Each group is responsible for teaching the theory to the class and demonstrating the link to leadership Some sort of visual aid is required Some sort of visual aid is required Group 1: Need theories Group 1: Need theories Group 2: Equity theory Group 2: Equity theory Group 3: Expectancy theory Group 3: Expectancy theory Group 4: ‘Work Design’ theories (Herzberg and Job characteristics model) Group 4: ‘Work Design’ theories (Herzberg and Job characteristics model) Group 5: Operant theory Group 5: Operant theory

29 Assignment # 4 Carry out your own conformity study. Carry out your own conformity study. Type up a 1 page description of your study and your observations. Type up a 1 page description of your study and your observations. Be sure to indicate how your observations relate to material discussed in the course. Be sure to indicate how your observations relate to material discussed in the course.


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