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Chapter 7 Conformity. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 2 Figure 7.1: Continuum of Social Influence.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Conformity. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 2 Figure 7.1: Continuum of Social Influence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Conformity

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 2 Figure 7.1: Continuum of Social Influence

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 3 Figure 7.2: The Chameleon Effect From Psychology, 3rd Edition by Saul Kassin. Copyright © Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 4 Conformity Tendency to change perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms.

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 5 When all members of a group give an incorrect response to an easy questiaon, most people most of the time conform with that response. Answer: False… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 6 Figure 7.3: A Classic Case of Suggestibility

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 7 Figure 7.4: Line Judgment Task Used in Asch's Conformity Studies Asch, 1955.

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 8 What Did Asch’s Participants Do? Participants went along with the clearly incorrect majority 37% of the time. However, 25% of the participants NEVER conformed. Still, 50% conformed for at least half of the critical presentations. –The rest conformed on an occasional basis.

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 9 Sherif’s vs. Asch’s Studies Sherif: Because of ambiguity, participants turned to each other for guidance. Asch: Found self in awkward position. –Obvious that group was wrong

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 10 Why Do People Conform? Informational Influence: People conform because they believe others are correct in their judgments. Normative Influence: People conform because they fear the consequences of appearing deviant.

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 11 Types of Conformity Private Conformity: Changes in both overt behavior and beliefs. Public Conformity: Superficial change in overt behavior only.

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 12 Figure 7.6: Distinguising Types of Conformity

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 13 Table 7.1: Two Types of Conformity

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 14 Majority Influence: Group Size Conformity increases with group size -- but only up to a point. Why? –Law of “diminishing returns”? –Perception that others are either in “collusion” or “spineless sheep”?

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 15 Majority Influence: Awareness of Norms Conform only when know about and focus on social norms. Often misperceive what is normative. –Pluralistic ignorance

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 16 Majority Influence: Having an Ally in Dissent When there was an ally in Asch’s study, conformity dropped by almost 80%. Why does having an ally reduce majority influence on our behavior? –Substantially more difficult to stand alone for one’s convictions than when one is part of even a tiny minority. –Any dissent can reduce the normative pressures to conform.

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 17 Majority Influence and Gender Differences Sex differences appear to depend on: –How comfortable people are with the experimental task –Type of social pressure people face

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 18 Majority Influence and Culture Cultures differ in the extent to which people adhere to social norms. What determines whether a culture becomes individualistic or collectivistic? –The complexity of the society –The affluence of the society –The heterogeneity of the society

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 19 Minority Influence: The Power of Style Moscovici: Nonconformists derive power from the style of their behavior. –“Consistent dissent” approach Hollander: Minorities influence by first accumulating idiosyncrasy credits. –“First conform, then dissent” strategy

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 20 How Does Minority Influence Work? Does minority influence work just like the process of conformity? Do majorities and minorities exert influence in different ways? –Because of their power and control, majorities elicit public conformity through normative pressures. –Because seen as seriously committed to their views, minorities produce private conformity, or conversion.

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 21 Majority vs. Minority Influence Relative impact of each depends on whether the judgment that is being made is objective or subjective. The relative effects of majority and minority viewpoints depend on how conformity is measured. –Direct, public measures vs. more indirect, private measures of conformity

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 22 Compliance Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests.

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 23 The Language of Requests Talking fast and catching people off guard can improve compliance rates. People can be disarmed by the simple phrasing of the request. –How you ask for something can be more important than what you ask for. –Langer: We often respond mindlessly to words without fully processing the information they are supposed to convey.

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 24 Langer et al (1978)

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 25 Norm of Reciprocity The powerful norm of reciprocity dictates that we treat others as they have treated us. –This norm leads us to feel obligated to repay for acts of kindness, even when unsolicited. Norm of reciprocity is relatively short-lived.

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 26 Sequential Request Strategies: Foot-in-the-Door Technique Person begins with a very small request; secures agreement; then makes a separate larger request. Why is it effective? –Self-perception theory revisited

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 27 Freedman and Fraser

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 28 Sequential Request Strategies: Low-Balling Person secures agreement with a request and then increases the size of that request by revealing hidden costs. Why is it effective? –Psychology of commitment

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 29 Cialdini et al

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 30 An effective way to get someone to do you a favor is to make a first request that is so large the person is sure to reject it. Answer: True… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 31 Sequential Request Strategies: Door-in-the-Face Technique Person begins with a very large request that will be rejected; then follows that up with a more moderate request. Why is it effective? –Perceptual contrast? –Reciprocal concessions?

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 32 Cialdini et al

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 33 Sequential Request Strategies: That’s Not All, Folks! Person begins with a somewhat inflated request; then immediately decreases the apparent size of the request by offering a discount or bonus.

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 34 Burger et al

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 35 Table 7.3: Sequential Request Strategies

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 36 Assertiveness: When People Say No To be able to resist the trap of compliance techniques, one must: –Be vigilant –Not feel indebted by the norm of reciprocity Compliance techniques work smoothly only if they are hidden from view.

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 37 Obedience Behavior change produced by the commands of authority

38 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 38 In experiments on obedience, most participants who were ordered to administer severe shocks to an innocent person refused to do so. Answer: False… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

39 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 39 Milgram’s Research: Forces of Destructive Obedience Conducted his experiments during the time that Adolph Eichmann was being tried for Nazi war crimes. His unorthodox methods have been the subject of much ethical debate. Description of Milgram’s obedience experiments.

40 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 40 Table 7.4: The Learner's Protests in the Milgram Experiment Experiment 5: New Base-Line Condition. The Learner's Schedule of Protests, pp , AND figure created from Table 2 Maximum shocks Administered in Experiments 1,2,3, and 4, p. 35 from OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY: AN EXPERIMENTAL VIEW by STANLEY MILGRAM Copyright © 1974 by Stanley Milgram. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

41 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 41 The Prods Used in Milgram’s Experiment “Please continue (or please go on).” “The experiment requires that you continue.” “It is absolutely essential that you continue.” “You have no other choice; you must go on.”

42 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 42 Table 7.5: Milgram's Baseline Results Experiment 5: New Base-Line Condition. The Learner's Schedule of Protests, pp , AND figure created from Table 2 Maximum shocks Administered in Experiments 1,2,3, and 4, p. 35 from OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY: AN EXPERIMENTAL VIEW by STANLEY MILGRAM

43 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 43 The Obedient Participant Milgram’s participants were tormented by experience. No gender differences observed in level of obedience. Milgram’s basic findings have been replicated in several different countries and among different age groups.

44 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 44 Are We All Nazis? No, an individual’s character can make a difference. Authoritarian Personality: Submissive toward figures of authority but aggressive toward subordinates.

45 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 45 Figure 7.7: Factors That Influence Obedience Based on Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority, 1974.

46 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 46 Important Factors That Influence Obedience Physical presence and apparent legitimacy of the authority figure The victim’s proximity The experimental procedure –Participants were led to feel relieved of personal responsibility for the victim’s welfare. –Gradual escalation was used.

47 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 47 Defiance: When People Rebel Social influence can also breed rebellion and defiance. Having allies gives individuals the courage to disobey.

48 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 48 The Continuum of Social Influence

49 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 49 As the number of people in a group increases, so does their impact on an individual. Answer: False… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

50 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 50 Social Impact Theory Social influence depends on three factors: –The strength of the source –The immediacy of the source to the target in time and space –The number of sources

51 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 51 Figure 7.8: Social Impact: Source Factors and Target Factors From B. Latane (1981) "The Psychology of Social Impact," American Psychologist, 36, 344. Copyright (c) 1981 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.

52 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 52 Conformity rates vary across different cultures and from one generation to the next. Answer: True… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

53 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 | 53 Perspectives on Human Nature Are people generally malleable or unyielding? Cultural differences –Some cultures value autonomy and independence whereas others place more emphasis on conformity to one’s group. –Within a given culture, these values can change over time.


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