4 ConformityTendency to change perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms.
5 Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?When all members of a group give an incorrect response to an easy questiaon, most people most of the time conform with that response.Answer: False… Let’s see why!
7 Figure 7.4: Line Judgment Task Used in Asch's Conformity Studies
8 What Did Asch’s Participants Do? Participants went along with the clearly incorrect majority 37% of the time.However, 25% of the participants NEVER conformed.Still, 50% conformed for at least half of the critical presentations.The rest conformed on an occasional basis.
9 Sherif’s vs. Asch’s Studies Sherif: Because of ambiguity, participants turned to each other for guidance.Asch: Found self in awkward position.Obvious that group was wrong
10 Why Do People Conform?Informational Influence: People conform because they believe others are correct in their judgments.Normative Influence: People conform because they fear the consequences of appearing deviant.
11 Types of ConformityPrivate Conformity: Changes in both overt behavior and beliefs.Public Conformity: Superficial change in overt behavior only.
14 Majority Influence: Group Size Conformity increases with group size -- but only up to a point.Why?Law of “diminishing returns”?Perception that others are either in “collusion” or “spineless sheep”?
15 Majority Influence: Awareness of Norms Conform only when know about and focus on social norms.Often misperceive what is normative.Pluralistic ignorance
16 Majority Influence: Having an Ally in Dissent When there was an ally in Asch’s study, conformity dropped by almost 80%.Why does having an ally reduce majority influence on our behavior?Substantially more difficult to stand alone for one’s convictions than when one is part of even a tiny minority.Any dissent can reduce the normative pressures to conform.
17 Majority Influence and Gender Differences Sex differences appear to depend on:How comfortable people are with the experimental taskType of social pressure people face
18 Majority Influence and Culture Cultures differ in the extent to which people adhere to social norms.What determines whether a culture becomes individualistic or collectivistic?The complexity of the societyThe affluence of the societyThe heterogeneity of the society
19 Minority Influence: The Power of Style Moscovici: Nonconformists derive power from the style of their behavior.“Consistent dissent” approachHollander: Minorities influence by first accumulating idiosyncrasy credits.“First conform, then dissent” strategy
20 How Does Minority Influence Work? Does minority influence work just like the process of conformity?Do majorities and minorities exert influence in different ways?Because of their power and control, majorities elicit public conformity through normative pressures.Because seen as seriously committed to their views, minorities produce private conformity, or conversion.
21 Majority vs. Minority Influence Relative impact of each depends on whether the judgment that is being made is objective or subjective.The relative effects of majority and minority viewpoints depend on how conformity is measured.Direct, public measures vs. more indirect, private measures of conformity
22 ComplianceChanges in behavior that are elicited by direct requests.
23 The Language of Requests Talking fast and catching people off guard can improve compliance rates.People can be disarmed by the simple phrasing of the request.How you ask for something can be more important than what you ask for.Langer: We often respond mindlessly to words without fully processing the information they are supposed to convey.
25 Norm of ReciprocityThe powerful norm of reciprocity dictates that we treat others as they have treated us.This norm leads us to feel obligated to repay for acts of kindness, even when unsolicited.Norm of reciprocity is relatively short-lived.
26 Sequential Request Strategies: Foot-in-the-Door Technique Person begins with a very small request; secures agreement; then makes a separate larger request.Why is it effective?Self-perception theory revisited
30 Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?An effective way to get someone to do you a favor is to make a first request that is so large the person is sure to reject it.Answer: True… Let’s see why!
31 Sequential Request Strategies: Door-in-the-Face Technique Person begins with a very large request that will be rejected; then follows that up with a more moderate request.Why is it effective?Perceptual contrast?Reciprocal concessions?
36 Assertiveness: When People Say No To be able to resist the trap of compliance techniques, one must:Be vigilantNot feel indebted by the norm of reciprocityCompliance techniques work smoothly only if they are hidden from view.
37 ObedienceBehavior change produced by the commands of authority
38 Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?In experiments on obedience, most participants who were ordered to administer severe shocks to an innocent person refused to do so.Answer: False… Let’s see why!
39 Milgram’s Research: Forces of Destructive Obedience Conducted his experiments during the time that Adolph Eichmann was being tried for Nazi war crimes.His unorthodox methods have been the subject of much ethical debate.Description of Milgram’s obedience experiments.
41 The Prods Used in Milgram’s Experiment “Please continue (or please go on).”“The experiment requires that you continue.”“It is absolutely essential that you continue.”“You have no other choice; you must go on.”
42 Table 7.5: Milgram's Baseline Results Experiment 5: New Base-Line Condition. The Learner's Schedule of Protests, pp , AND figure created from Table 2 Maximum shocks Administered in Experiments 1,2,3, and 4, p. 35 from OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY: AN EXPERIMENTAL VIEW by STANLEY MILGRAM
43 The Obedient Participant Milgram’s participants were tormented by experience.No gender differences observed in level of obedience.Milgram’s basic findings have been replicated in several different countries and among different age groups.
44 Are We All Nazis? No, an individual’s character can make a difference. Authoritarian Personality: Submissive toward figures of authority but aggressive toward subordinates.
45 Figure 7.7: Factors That Influence Obedience Based on Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority, 1974.
46 Important Factors That Influence Obedience Physical presence and apparent legitimacy of the authority figureThe victim’s proximityThe experimental procedureParticipants were led to feel relieved of personal responsibility for the victim’s welfare.Gradual escalation was used.
47 Defiance: When People Rebel Social influence can also breed rebellion and defiance.Having allies gives individuals the courage to disobey.
49 Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?As the number of people in a group increases, so does their impact on an individual.Answer: False… Let’s see why!
50 Social Impact Theory Social influence depends on three factors: The strength of the sourceThe immediacy of the source to the target in time and spaceThe number of sources
51 Figure 7.8: Social Impact: Source Factors and Target Factors From B. Latane (1981) "The Psychology of Social Impact," American Psychologist, 36, Copyright (c) 1981 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.
52 Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?Conformity rates vary across different cultures and from one generation to the next.Answer: True… Let’s see why!
53 Perspectives on Human Nature Are people generally malleable or unyielding?Cultural differencesSome cultures value autonomy and independence whereas others place more emphasis on conformity to one’s group.Within a given culture, these values can change over time.