Presentation on theme: "Social Influence: Should We Resist?"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Influence: Should We Resist? 8Social Influence: Should We Resist?
2How do Social Roles and Norms Define the Ways in Which We Behave? The chameleon effectUnconscious tendency to mimic the behavior of one’s interaction partnerFacial expressionsPhysical gesturesVocal tone
3The term chameleon effect describes the tendency to nonconsciously mimic the behaviors of someone with whom one is interacting.
4Social rolesExpectations regarding appropriate behavior in different circumstancesStanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo, 1971)Some students pretended to be prisoners, while others were guardsWhat were the results?Why did the study have to be called off?
5Monique’s Social Roles Monique’s Social Roles. As we move through the day, we change our behaviors to meet the expectations of various social roles.
6Social Norms Patterns of behavior accepted as normal Individuals are expected to conform to norms“Rules" that govern behaviorCan be explicit or implicit
7Types of Norms: Folkways Everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.These are sometime referred to as soft norms7
8Types of Norms: MoresStrongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences.Taboos are mores so strong that violation is considered extremely offensive and even unmentionable.8
9Types of Norms: LawsFormal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions.Civil law deals with disputes among persons or groups.Criminal law deals with public safety and well-being.9
10Types of Norms: Situational Norms that change according to the situationAs an example: Normative behavior at a sporting event would not be appropriate within the context of the normal classroom
11Social norms dictate many areas of our lives—even the ways in which we greet one another—and can vary greatly from one culture to another.
12Descriptive and Injunctive Norms Descriptive norms (Prescriptive)How people typically behave in a group or situationInjunctive norms (Proscriptive)Perceptions of what behaviors are or are not acceptableHave you ever eaten pizza at someone else’s house? Did you use your hands or a fork and knife?
13Pluralistic Ignorance Individuals in a group reject the group normThose individuals believe, however, that others accept the group normThis belief is incorrect
14What Factors Affect and Promote Conformity? Conformity: Social influence in which we change our behaviors to be consistent with social norms
15What Factors Affect and Promote Conformity? Informational Social Influence occurs when the reality is ambiguous and group information is used to justify conformityThis usually results in private conformity and the individual truly believes the group is right
16What Factors Affect and Promote Conformity? Normative Social Influence occurs when the reality is unambiguous but a desire for acceptance prompts one to go along with the groupThis is usually public conformity and the individual is only pretending to agree but privately believes the group is wrong
17Musafer Sherif’s Conformity Research: Informational Influence Subjects in a darkened room were asked to look at a point of light projected on a black wall.Although the point of light was stationary, observed believed the light began to move (the autokinetic effect).
19Musafer Sherif’s Conformity Research: Informational Influence When individuals discussed their estimate of the movement of light with each other, they converged on a common standard or norm.Although the data indicate that influence was present, subjects denied that they were influenced by others.
20Musafer Sherif’s Conformity Research: Informational Influence The more uncertain subjects were about reality, the more they were influenced by others, especially confident others.Norms, once established by the group, were used by participants even when they were alone.
21For Asch’s study, participants were asked to identify which of the three comparison lines on the right matched the length of the standard line on the left.
22Solomon Asch’s Conformity Research: Normative Influence Asch’s research assistants tried to influence participants to pick the wrong line as the match for the line in the comparison card.Many (approximately 33%) went along rather than risk the opposition of the “group.”
24What Factors Affect And Promote Conformity? (continued) Public conformity – we go with the norm even when we disagree with itPrivate conformity – we go with the norm because we feel it is right
25What Factors Affect And Promote Conformity? (continued) Informational social influenceWe turn to members of a group to obtain accurate dataNormative social influenceWe go along with a group for acceptance
26Social Influence: Informational or Normative Social Influence: Informational or Normative? Seeking information or striving to be accepted?
27Factors Affecting Conformity Characteristics of the groupHow many are in the ‘in-group’?Three confederates maximized conformitySocial impact theoryConformity depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of ‘in-group’ membersDemographic variablesAge – conformity decreases as we get older
28Factors Affecting Conformity (continued) Peers versus parentsThese variables are negative correlated. What does that mean?Gender – women conform more in public, but not in privateThis finding is not true in all circumstances
29Factors Affecting Conformity (continued) CultureCollectivist cultures -> higher conformityIndividualistic cultures -> lower conformityRemember these are generalizations and not absolute rules!
30Factors Affecting Conformity (continued) Resisting the pull of conformityFinding an ally – it is easier to resist conformity if you do not feel aloneMotivation – how does one’s need for individuality affect their actions?Minority influenceA small number of people can change a group’s attitudes or behaviors
31What Methods do People Use to Get Others to Comply With Requests? Compliance – getting someone to do what you want via direct requestThe request can be verbal or non-verbal, but can be effective either way
32Compliance The Six principles of compliance (Cialdini, 1990s) 1. Friendship or likingIngratiation techniques – getting someone to like us so they comply with our request(s)2. Commitment or consistencyFoot-in-the-door techniqueStart with a small request and then increase itLowball techniqueHave you ever bought a car?
33Compliance (continued) The Six principles of compliance (Cialdini, 1990s)3. ScarcityWe really want things if we think we can’t have them4. ReciprocityCompliance is enhanced by obligationDoor-in-the-face techniqueStart with a large request and then decrease itThe that’s-not-all techniqueAdd something to the original offer to enhance its (apparent) value
34Compliance (continued) The Six principles of compliance (Cialdini, 1990s)5. Social validationWe comply with requests that are in line with our view of others like ourselves6. AuthorityWe are more likely to comply with requests from those with authority
35How do Authority Figures Get Us to Obey Them? Obedience – compliance with the orders of an authority figureMilgram, 1963Was it ethical? At the time, perhaps. Now? No.Replications have lowered the "maximum shock" (Burger, 2009)Results were very similar to those of Milgram almost 50 years ago
36Degrees of Disobedience Degrees of Disobedience. Whether or not we obey depends upon the perceived level of authority, as demonstrated in Milgram’s controversial study on obedience.
37How Do Authority Figures Get Us To Obey Them? (continued) Obedience outside the labExamples of obedience are all around youReality televisionAbu Ghraib prison atrocitiesStanford prison experimentMcDonald’s in Mt. Washington, KY
38How Do Authority Figures Get Us To Obey Them? (continued) Bringing Milgram to prime timeEssentially Milgram’s experiment was repeated on French television‘Contestants’ were "ordered" to deliver up to 460 volts of electricity to a victim64 of 80 people obeyed the ordersWould YOU have stopped before the end? Are you sure?Cults and obedience
39Jim Jones and the members of the Peoples Temple serve as a haunting example of just how far obedience can go.
40Strategies for Resisting Obedience Changing authorityRemove the appearance of authorityMilgram showed that the perception of authority is enough to elicit obedienceChanging proximityPhysical or psychological closeness can impact our willingness to be obedientAction learning: Using compliance techniques