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Muscle and movement Topic 11.2. Assessment statements 11.2.1 State the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human movement. 11.2.2.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscle and movement Topic 11.2. Assessment statements 11.2.1 State the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human movement. 11.2.2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscle and movement Topic 11.2

2 Assessment statements State the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human movement Label a diagram of the human elbow joint, including cartilage, synovial fluid, joint capsule, named bones and antagonistic muscles (biceps and triceps) Outline the functions of the structures in the human elbow joint named in Compare the movements of the hip joint and the knee joint Describe the structure of striated muscle fibres, including the myofibrils with light and dark bands, mitochondria, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, nuclei and the sarcolemma Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of a sarcomere, including Z lines, actin filaments, myosin filaments with heads, and the resultant light and dark bands Explain how skeletal muscle contracts, including the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the formation of cross-bridges, the sliding of actin and myosin filaments, and the use of ATP to break cross-bridges and re- set myosin heads Analyse electron micrographs to find the state of contraction of muscle fibres.

3 Joints Articulation or arthrosis, point where two or more bones contact one another Articulation or arthrosis, point where two or more bones contact one another Arthrology is the scientific study of joints Arthrology is the scientific study of joints Rheumatology is the branch of medicine devoted to joint disease and conditions Rheumatology is the branch of medicine devoted to joint disease and conditions Kinesiology is the scientific study of the movement of the human body Kinesiology is the scientific study of the movement of the human body Joints provide mobility and hold the body together Joints provide mobility and hold the body together Include: bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and nerves Include: bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and nerves

4 Bones (living organs) Provide a hard framework to support the body Provide a hard framework to support the body Allow protection of vulnerable softer tissue and organs Allow protection of vulnerable softer tissue and organs Act as levers so that body movement can occur Act as levers so that body movement can occur Forms blood cells in the bone marrow Forms blood cells in the bone marrow Allows storage of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus Allows storage of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus

5 Muscles and tendons Muscles attached to bones by tendons Muscles attached to bones by tendons Tendons are cords of dense connective tissue Tendons are cords of dense connective tissue Arrangement of the bones and the design of the joints determine the type or range of motion possible in any particular area of the body Arrangement of the bones and the design of the joints determine the type or range of motion possible in any particular area of the body Muscles provide force necessary for movement by shortening the length of the fibers or cells Muscles provide force necessary for movement by shortening the length of the fibers or cells Occur as antagonistic pairs which allow the body part to return to its original position after movement Occur as antagonistic pairs which allow the body part to return to its original position after movement

6 Ligaments and nerves Ligaments are band-like connective tissue that serves to strengthen the joint and provide stability Ligaments are band-like connective tissue that serves to strengthen the joint and provide stability Have many different types of sensory nerve endings which that help to prevent over-extension of the joint and its parts Have many different types of sensory nerve endings which that help to prevent over-extension of the joint and its parts Proprioceptors in ligaments and muscles allow constant monitoring of the position of the joint parts Proprioceptors in ligaments and muscles allow constant monitoring of the position of the joint parts

7 Elbow joint Ends of bones lined with cartilage Synovial cavity containing synovial fluid Joint capsule Synovial fluid is located within the synovial cavity. This cavity is located within the joint capsule. The joint capsule is composed of dense connective tissue that is continuous with the membrane of the involved bones.

8 Elbow parts and their functions Joint partFunction CartilageReduces friction and absorbs compression Synovial fluidLubricates to reduce friction and provides nutrients to the cells of the cartilage Joint capsuleSurrounds the joint, encloses the synovial cavity, and unites the connecting bones TendonsAttach muscle to bone LigamentsConnect bone to bone Biceps muscleContracts to bring about flexion (bending) of the arm Triceps muscleContracts to cause extension (straightening) of the arm HumerusActs as a lever that allows anchorage of the muscles of the elbow RadiusActs as a lever for the biceps muscle UlnaActs as a lever for the triceps muscle

9 Types of joints Synovial – contain synovial cavity Synovial – contain synovial cavity Diarthrotic – freely movable Diarthrotic – freely movable Hinge – provides an opening-and- closing type of movement Hinge – provides an opening-and- closing type of movement Ball-and-socket – permits movement in several directions Ball-and-socket – permits movement in several directions

10 Comparison of the hip and knee joints Hip jointKnee joint Freely movable Angular motions in many directions and rotational movements Angular motion in one direction Motions possible are flexion, extension, abduction, circumduction, and rotation Motions possible are flexion and extension Bat-like structure fits into a cup-like depression Convex surface fits into a concave surface

11 Definitions Flexion – decrease in angle between connecting bones Flexion – decrease in angle between connecting bones Extension – increase in angle between connecting bones Extension – increase in angle between connecting bones Abduction – movement of bone away from body midline Abduction – movement of bone away from body midline Adduction – movement of bone toward midline Adduction – movement of bone toward midline Circumduction – distal or far end of a limb moves in a circle Circumduction – distal or far end of a limb moves in a circle Rotation – a bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis Rotation – a bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis

12 Muscle Three types: Three types: Skeletal or striated Skeletal or striated Cardiac Cardiac Smooth or non-striated Smooth or non-striated

13 Striated muscle cells Composed of thousands of cells, which are called muscle fibers b/c of their elongated shape Composed of thousands of cells, which are called muscle fibers b/c of their elongated shape Blood vessels and nerves penetrate the muscle body Blood vessels and nerves penetrate the muscle body Each muscle fiber contains multiple nuclei that lie just inside the plasma membrane, which is called the sarcolema Each muscle fiber contains multiple nuclei that lie just inside the plasma membrane, which is called the sarcolema

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15 Sarcolemma has multiple tunnel-like extensions that penetrate the interior of the cell called transverse or T tubules Sarcolemma has multiple tunnel-like extensions that penetrate the interior of the cell called transverse or T tubules cytoplasm of muscle fibers is called the sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle fibers is called the sarcoplasm Sarcoplasm contains large numbers of glycosomes that store glycogen Sarcoplasm contains large numbers of glycosomes that store glycogen Sarcoplasm also contains large amounts of myoglobin Sarcoplasm also contains large amounts of myoglobin

16 Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a fluid-filled system of membranous sacs surrounding the muscle myofibrils Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a fluid-filled system of membranous sacs surrounding the muscle myofibrils Myofibrils are rod-shaped bodies that run the length of the cell and are the contractile elements of the muscle cell Myofibrils are rod-shaped bodies that run the length of the cell and are the contractile elements of the muscle cell Myofibrils run parallel to one another and have numerous mitochondria squeezed between them Myofibrils run parallel to one another and have numerous mitochondria squeezed between them

17 Myofibrils Made up of sarcomeres which allow movement Made up of sarcomeres which allow movement Often described as banded: Often described as banded: Z lines mark the ends of the sarcomere Z lines mark the ends of the sarcomere A bands are dark in color and extend the entire length of the myosin filaments; narrow H band occurs in the middle containing only myosin, no actin; supporting protein occurs in the middle of myosin producing M line A bands are dark in color and extend the entire length of the myosin filaments; narrow H band occurs in the middle containing only myosin, no actin; supporting protein occurs in the middle of myosin producing M line I bands are light in color and contain only actin, no myosin I bands are light in color and contain only actin, no myosin

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19 Two types of filaments or myofilaments that cause the banded appearance of the muscle fiber Two types of filaments or myofilaments that cause the banded appearance of the muscle fiber These two myofilaments are composed of two contractile proteins, actin and myosin These two myofilaments are composed of two contractile proteins, actin and myosin

20 ActinMyosin Thin filaments (8 nm in diameter)Thick filaments (16 nm in diameter) Contains myosin-binding sitesContains myosin heads that have actin-binding sites Individual molecules form helical structures Individual molecules form a common shaft-like region with outward protruding heads Includes two regulatory proteins, tropomyosin and troponin Heads are referred to as cross- bridges and contain ATP-binding sites and ATPase enzymes

21 Muscle Contraction Explained by the sliding filament theory proposed by Hugh Huxley in 1954 States that muscles contract when actin myofilaments slide over myosin myofilaments

22 Sliding Filament Theory 1. Motor neuron carries an action potential until it reaches a neuromuscular junction 2. Neurotransmitter called acetylcholine is released into the gap between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber 3. Acetylcholine bines to receptors in the sarcolemma 4. Sarcolemma ion channels open and sodium ions move through the membrane

23 5. Muscle action potential is generated 6. Muscle action potential moves along the membrane and through the T tubules 7. Acetylcholine is broken down by acetylcholinesterase 8. Muscle action potential moving along T tubule causes release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Calcium ions flood into the sarcoplasm

24 9. Calcium ions bind to troponin on the actin myofilaments. This exposes the myosin-binding sites 10. Myosin heads include ATPase which splits ATP and releases energy 11. Myosin heads then bind to the myosin-binding sites on the actin with the help of the protein called tropomyosin 12. Myosin-actin cross-bridges rotate toward the center of the sarcomere. This produces the power or working stroke.

25 13. ATP once again binds to the myosin head resulting in the detachment of myosin from the actin 14. If there are no further action potentials, the level of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm falls. The troponin-tropomyosin complex then moves to its original position, thus blocking the myosin-binding sites. The muscle then relaxes.

26 Useful websites atthews/myosin.html atthews/myosin.html atthews/myosin.html atthews/myosin.html contractswf/index.html contractswf/index.html contractswf/index.html contractswf/index.html hill.com/sites/ /student_vie w0/chapter10/animation__sarcomere_c ontraction.html hill.com/sites/ /student_vie w0/chapter10/animation__sarcomere_c ontraction.html hill.com/sites/ /student_vie w0/chapter10/animation__sarcomere_c ontraction.html hill.com/sites/ /student_vie w0/chapter10/animation__sarcomere_c ontraction.html

27 Rigor mortis After death, calcium ions leak out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and bind to troponin After death, calcium ions leak out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and bind to troponin This allows actin to slide, but lack of ATP production prevents myosin heads from detaching from the actin This allows actin to slide, but lack of ATP production prevents myosin heads from detaching from the actin Result is rigidity for about 24 hours unter further muscle deterioration occurs Result is rigidity for about 24 hours unter further muscle deterioration occurs

28 Electron Micrograph

29 When the muscle is maximally contracted, the H zone disappears, the Z lines move closer together, the I bands are no longer present, and the A bands appear to run the complete length of the sarcomeres When the muscle is maximally contracted, the H zone disappears, the Z lines move closer together, the I bands are no longer present, and the A bands appear to run the complete length of the sarcomeres Can be in various states of partial contraction Can be in various states of partial contraction This causes a difference in the position of the sarcomere parts This causes a difference in the position of the sarcomere parts The number of muscle fibers in a muscle going through contraction determines the overall strength of a muscle contraction The number of muscle fibers in a muscle going through contraction determines the overall strength of a muscle contraction


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