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Muscles 13.8 Muscles are effectors which enable movement to be carried out.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscles 13.8 Muscles are effectors which enable movement to be carried out."— Presentation transcript:


2 Muscles 13.8 Muscles are effectors which enable movement to be carried out

3 Muscle Is responsible for almost all the movements in animals 3 types

4 Muscles & the Skeleton Skeletal muscles cause the skeleton to move at joints They are attached to skeleton by tendons. Tendons transmit muscle force to the bone. Tendons are made of collagen fibres & are very strong & stiff

5 Antagonistic Muscle Action Muscles are either contracted or relaxed When contracted the muscle exerts a pulling force, causing it to shorten Since muscles can only pull (not push), they work in pairs called antagonistic muscles The muscle that bends the joint is called the flexor muscle The muscle that straightens the joint is called the extensor muscle

6 Elbow Joint The best known example of antagonistic muscles are the bicep & triceps muscles

7 Muscle Structure A single muscle e.g. biceps contains approx 1000 muscle fibres. These fibres run the whole length of the muscle Muscle fibres are joined together at the tendons Bicep Muscle

8 Muscle Structure Each muscle fibre is actually a single muscle cell This cell is approx 100 m in diameter & a few cm long These giant cells have many nuclei Their cytoplasm is packed full of myofibrils These are bundles of protein filaments that cause contraction Sarcoplasm (muscle cytoplasm) also contains mitochondria to provide energy for contraction

9 Muscle Structure The E.M shows that each myofibril is made up of repeating dark & light bands In the middle of the dark band is the M-line In the middle of the light band is the Z-line The repeating unit from one Z-line to the next is called the sarcomere

10 Muscle Structure A very high resolution E.M reveals that each myofibril is made up of parallel filaments. There are 2 kinds of filament called thick & thin filaments. These 2 filaments are linked at intervals called cross bridges, which actually stick out from the thick filaments

11 The Thick Filament (Myosin) Consists of the protein called myosin. A myosin molecule is shaped a bit like a golf club, but with 2 heads. The heads stick out to form the cross bridge Many of these myosin molecules stick together to form a thick filament

12 Thin Filament (Actin) The thin filament consists of a protein called actin. The thin filament also contains tropomyosin. This protein is involved in the control of muscle contraction

13 Sarcomere = the basic contractile unit

14 The Sarcomere

15 I Band = actin filaments


17 Anatomy of a Sarcomere The thick filaments produce the dark A band. The thin filaments extend in each direction from the Z line. Where they do not overlap the thick filaments, they create the light I band. The H zone is that portion of the A band where the thick and thin filaments do not overlap. The entire array of thick and thin filaments between the Z lines is called a sarcomere

18 Sarcomere shortens when muscle contracts Shortening of the sarcomeres in a myofibril produces the shortening of the myofibril And, in turn, of the muscle fibre of which it is a part

19 Mechanism of muscle contraction The above micrographs show that the sarcomere gets shorter when the muscle contracts The light (I) bands become shorter The dark bands (A) bands stay the same length

20 The Sliding Filament Theory So, when the muscle contracts, sarcomeres become smaller However the filaments do not change in length. Instead they slide past each other (overlap) So actin filaments slide between myosin filaments and the zone of overlap is larger

21 What makes the filaments slide past each other? Energy for the movement comes from splitting ATP ATPase that does this is located in the myosin cross bridge head. These cross bridges attach to actin. The energy from the ATP causes the angle of the myosin head to change. So they are able to cause the actin filament to slide relative to the myosin. This movement reduces the sarcomere length.

22 The Cross Bridge Cycle The cross bridge cycle has 4 steps It is analogues to 4 steps in rowing a boat

23 Step 1 The Cross bridge swings out from the myosin filament & attaches to the actin filament. Put Oars in water

24 Step 2 – The Power Stroke The cross bridge changes shape & rotates through 45 degrees Causes the filaments to slide. Energy from ATP is used for this power stroke ADP + Pi are released Pull oars through water

25 Step 3 A new ATP molecule binds to myosin The Cross bridge detaches from the thin filament Push oars out of water

26 Step 4 The Cross bridge changes back to its original shape This occurs while it is detached (to ensure the actin filament is not pushed back again). It is now ready for a new cycle, but further along the actin filament Push oars into starting position

27 Repetition of the cycle One ATP molecule is split by each cross bridge in each cycle. This takes only a few milliseconds During a contraction 1000s of cross bridges in each sarcomere go through this cycle. However the cross bridges are all out of synch, so there are always many cross bridges attached at any one time to maintain force.

28 Control of Muscle Contraction How is the cross bridge cycle switched off in a relaxed muscle? This is where the regulatory protein on the actin filament, tropomyosin is involved. Actin filaments have myosin binding sites. These binding sites are blocked by tropomyosin in relaxed muscle. When Ca 2+ bind tropomyosin is displaced and the myosin binding sites are uncovered. So myosin & actin can now bind together to start the cross bridge cycle

29 Tropomyosin, Ca 2+ & ATP Ca 2+ causes tropomyosin to be displaced. No longer blocks myosin binding site Power stoke can begin. Ca 2+ also active myosin molecules to breakdown ATP So energy is released to begin contraction

30 Neuromuscular junction: Note Ach = Acetylcholine

31 Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

32 Sequence of events 1.An action potential arrives at the end of a motor neurone, at the neuromuscular junction. 2.This causes the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. 3This initiates an action potential in the muscle cell membrane (Sarcolemma). 4.This action potential is carried quickly into the large muscle cell by invaginations in the cell membrane called T-tubules.

33 Sequence of events 5.The action potential causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release its store of calcium into the myofibrils. 6. Ca 2+ causes tropomoysin to be displaced uncovering myosin binding sites on actin. 7.Myosin cross bridges can now attach and the cross bridge cycle can take place. Relaxation is the reverse of these steps

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