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Section 2.2—Naming Chemicals We need to be able to name the chemicals in the antacids!

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Presentation on theme: "Section 2.2—Naming Chemicals We need to be able to name the chemicals in the antacids!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 2.2—Naming Chemicals We need to be able to name the chemicals in the antacids!

2 The Language of Chemistry Chemistry has a language all of its own Each element symbol starts with a capital letter EnglishChemistry Element SymbolsLetters Chemical FormulasWords Chemical EquationsSentences

3 Binary Ionic compounds

4 Definitions Binary Ionic Compound- compound containing two elements—one metal and one non-metal + Cation + Cation - Anion - Anion Ionic Compound Ionic bond- bond formed by attraction between + and - ions

5 Metals & Non-Metals Ionic Bonds are between metals & non-metals HHe LiBeBCNOFNe NaMgAlSiPSClAr KCaScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe CsBaLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn FrRaLrRfDbSgBhHsMtUunUuuUubUut MetalsMetalloids Non- metals

6 These compounds have:  2 elements (“binary”)  A metal & a non-metal (“ionic”) To name these compounds:  Write the name of the metal (the cation)  Write the name of the non-metal (the anion) with the suffix “-ide” Identifying & Naming Binary Ionic The subscripts in the formula do not matter when naming this type

7 Example #1 NaCl

8 Example #1 NaCl Cation Anion “Sodium” “Chlorine” becomes “Chloride” Sodium Chloride

9 Example #2 CaBr 2

10 Example #2 Cation Anion “Calcium” “Bromine” becomes “Bromide” CaBr 2 Calcium Bromide

11 Example #3 K2OK2O

12 K2OK2O Cation Anion “Potassium” “Oxygen” becomes “Oxide” Potassium Oxide

13 Let’s Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds CaF 2 Na 3 P NaCl SrBr 2

14 Let’s Practice Calcium fluoride Sodium phosphide Sodium chloride Strontium bromide Example: Write the name for the following compounds CaF 2 Na 3 P NaCl SrBr 2

15 Polyatomic Ionic Compounds

16 Definition Polyatomic Ion- more than one atom that together have a charge + Cation + Cation Polyatomic Ionic Compound- compound containing at least one polyatomic ion - Polyatomic Anion Polyatomic Ionic Compound

17 Common Polyatomic Ions COMMON POLYATOMIC IONS Acetate, CH 3 COO -1 or C 2 H 3 O 2 -1 Ammonium NH 4 +1 Bromate, BrO 3 -1 Bromite, BrO 2 -1 Carbonate, CO 3 -2 Carbonite, CO 2 -2 Chlorate, ClO 3 -1 Chlorite, ClO 2 -1 Chromate, CrO 4 -2 Cyanide, CN -1 Dichromate, Cr 2 O 7 -2 Dihydrogen phosphate, H 2 PO 4 -1 Hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate, HCO 3 -1 Hydrogen phosphate or biphosphate, HPO 4 -2 Hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate, HSO 4 -1 Hydroxide, OH -1 Hypochlorite, ClO -1 Iodate, IO 3 -1 Iodite, IO 2 -1 Nitrate, NO 3 -1 Nitrite, NO 2 -1 Oxalate, C 2 O 4 -2 Perchlorate, ClO 4 -1 Permanganate, MnO 4 -1 Peroxide, O 2 -2 Phosphate, PO 4 -3 Phosphite, PO 3 -3 Silicate, SiO 3 -1 Sulfate, SO 4 -2 Sulfite, SO 3 -2 The Appendix of your book (Page A-2) has the following chart

18 The only cation (front-half) polyatomic ion is “NH 4 ” All other polyatomic ions are anions (back- half) The subscripts within the polyatomic ion is important (it must match exactly with the one on your ion list) If there are parenthesis, the polyatomic ion is inside (ignore the number outside) Help Identifying Polyatomic Ions

19 Practice Identifying Polyatomic Ions Example: Identify and name the polyatomic ion in each compound NaNO 3 NH 4 Cl Ca(OH) 2 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 K 2 CO 3

20 Practice Identifying Polyatomic Ions Example: Identify and name the polyatomic ion in each compound NaNO 3 NH 4 Cl Ca(OH) 2 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 K 2 CO 3 Nitrate Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonium & phosphate Carbonate

21 These compounds have:  More than 2 capital letters (non starting with H)  Contain at least 1 metal & 1 non-metal To name these compounds:  Write the name of the cation (the metal element name or “Ammonium” for “NH 4 ”)  If the anion is a polyatomic ion, write the polyatomic ion’s name just as it is  If the anion is a single non-metal element, write its name with the suffix “-ide” Identifying & Naming Polyatomic Ionic

22 Example #4 NaNO 3

23 Example #4 NaNO 3 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Sodium” “Nitrate” Sodium Nitrate

24 Example #5 K 2 SO 4

25 Example #5 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Potassium” “sulfate” K 2 SO 4 Potassium sulfate

26 Example #6 Ca(OH) 2

27 Example #6 Ca(OH) 2 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Calcium” “hydroxide” Calcium hydroxide

28 Example #7 (NH 4 ) 2 S

29 Example #7 Polyatomic Cation Anion “Ammonium” “sulfur” becomes “sulfide” (NH 4 ) 2 S Ammonium sulfide

30 Let’s Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Na 3 PO 4 NH 4 ClO K 2 CO 3

31 Let’s Practice Calcium nitrate Sodium phosphate Ammonium hypochlorite Potassium carbonate Example: Write the name for the following compounds Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Na 3 PO 4 NH 4 ClO K 2 CO 3

32 Multivalent Metals

33 Definition Multivalent Metal- metal that has more than one possibility for cationic charge The Appendix of your book (Page A-2) has the following chart Common multivalent metals and their charges Cobalt Co +2 Co +3 Copper Cu +1 Cu +2 Iron Fe +2 Fe +3 Lead Pb +2 Pb +4 Manganese Mn +2 Mn +3 Mercury Hg 2 +2 Hg +2 Tin Sn +2 Sn +4

34 These compounds have:  One of the multi-valent metals in that chart To name these compounds:  Write the name of the metal element (cation)  Write the name of the anion (element name with “-ide” or polyatomic ion name)  Determine the total negative charge  Total negative charge = total positive charge for all neutral compounds  Determine the charge on each metal atom  Write the charge in roman numerals in parenthesis after the metal’s name Identifying & Naming Multivalent Metals

35 Common Ions Use the periodic table to determine charges on common elemental anions

36 Example #8 CuCl

37 Example #8 CuCl Cation Anion “Copper” “Chlorine” becomes “Chloride” Copper Chloride

38 Example #8 CuCl Cation Anion “Copper” “Chlorine” becomes “Chloride” Copper Chloride Chloride has a –1 charge -1 charge * 1 ion = -1 A –1 charge needs a +1 charge Therefore, copper must be +1 (I)

39 Example #9 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3

40 Example #9 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Iron” “Carbonate” Iron carbonate

41 Example #9 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Iron” “Carbonate” Iron carbonate Carbonate has a –2 charge -2 charge * 3 ions = -6 A –6 charge needs a +6 charge and there are 2 iron ions Therefore, iron must be +3 (III)

42 Let’s Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds PbCl 2 PbCl 4 MnO Mn 2 O 3

43 Let’s Practice Lead (II) chloride Lead (IV) chloride Manganese (II) oxide Manganese (III) oxide Example: Write the name for the following compounds PbCl 2 PbCl 4 MnO Mn 2 O 3

44 Binary Covalent Compounds

45 Definition Binary Covalent Compound compound made from two non-metals that share electrons Non metal Non metal Non metal Non metal Covalent compound Covalent bond atoms share electrons

46 These compounds have:  2 elements (“binary”)  Both non-metals (“covalent”) To name these compounds:  Write the name of the first element with the prefix indicating the number of atoms (except don’t use “mono-”)  Write the name of the second element with the prefix indicating the number of atoms (including “mono-”) and the suffix “ide” Identifying & Naming Binary Covalent

47 Covalent Prefixes The Appendix of your book (Page A-2) has the following chart PREFIXES USED IN MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS 1.mono- 2.di- 3.tri- 4.tetra- 5.penta- 6.hexa- 7.hepta- 8.octa- 9.nona- 10.deca-

48 Example #10 P2O5P2O5

49 P2O5P2O5 Phosphorus Oxygen 2 = “di-” 5 = “penta-” Use “-ide” Diphosphorus pentaoxide

50 Example #11 SiO 2

51 Example #11 Silicon Oxygen Don’t use “mono-” on first element 2 = “di-” Use “-ide” SiO 2 Silicon dioxide

52 Let’s Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds CO 2 N2O4N2O4 P 4 O 10 CO

53 Let’s Practice Carbon dioxide Dinitrogen tetraoxide Tetraphosphorus decaoxide Carbon monoxide Example: Write the name for the following compounds CO 2 N 2 O 4 P 4 O 10 CO

54 Nomenclature Summary Naming Chemical Formulas Starts with a metal or NH4 2 capital letters = Binary Ionic More than 2 elements = Polyatomic Ionic Does not contain a metal = Binary Covalent compound

55 Mixed Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds Na 2 O K 3 PO 4 Cu(OH) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 S MgCl 2

56 Mixed Practice Sodium oxide Potassium phosphate Copper (II) hydroxide Ammonium sulfide Magnesium chloride Example: Write the name for the following compounds Na 2 O K 3 PO 4 Cu(OH) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 S MgCl 2


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