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Nomenclature: 1.Rules for naming covalent- molecular compounds 2. Rules for naming ionic compounds 3. Rules for naming acids.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature: 1.Rules for naming covalent- molecular compounds 2. Rules for naming ionic compounds 3. Rules for naming acids."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nomenclature: 1.Rules for naming covalent- molecular compounds 2. Rules for naming ionic compounds 3. Rules for naming acids

2 Using only the formula, determine if it is covalent-molecular or ionic. Do you see only non- metals, and no familiar ions? If so, it’s covalent- molecular. SO 2 CO 2 NCl 3 NO K2SK2S NH 4 NO 3 N2O5N2O5 NO 3 SCl 4 PCl 5

3 SO 2 covalent-molecular CO 2 covalent-molecular NCl 3 covalent-molecular NO covalent-molecular K 2 S ionic NH 4 NO 3 ionic N 2 O 5 covalent-molecular NO 3 covalent-molecular SCl 4 covalent-molecular PCl 5 covalent-molecular Do you see only non- metals, and no familiar ions? If so, it’s covalent- molecular. Using only the formula, determine if it is covalent-molecular or ionic.

4 Is it ionic? 1.Do you see familiar polyatomic ions? 2.Does the formula contain a metal cation and a non-metal anion? MnSO 4 K2O2K2O2 NiCl 2 CuCO 3 K 2 CrO 4 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 NO 2 SO 3 SeCl 2 AgClO 4

5 Is it ionic? 1.Do you see familiar polyatomic ions? 2.Does the formula contain a metal cation and a non-metal anion? MnSO 4 ionic K 2 O 2 ionic NiCl 2 ionic CuCO 3 ionic K 2 CrO 4 ionic (NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 ionic NO 2 covalent-molecular SO 3 covalent-molecular SeCl 2 covalent-molecular AgClO 4 ionic

6 Naming covalent-moleculars: SO 2 CO 2 NCl 3 NO Cl 2 O 7 P4S6P4S6 N2O5N2O5 NO 3 SCl 4 PCl 5 1.Name the central atom first using the atom’s name. 2.Name the other atoms next, using –ide endings. 3.Use prefixes (mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, etc.) to indicate number of each atom. Do not use mono- with first atom.

7 Naming covalent-moleculars: SO 2 sulfur dioxide CO 2 carbon dioxide NCl 3 nitrogen trichloride NO nitrogen monoxide Cl 2 O 7 dichlorine heptoxide P 4 S 6 tetraphosphorus hexasulfide N 2 O 5 dinitrogen pentoxide NO 3 nitrogen trioxide SCl 4 sulfur tetrachloride PCl 5 phosphorus pentachloride 1.Name the central atom first using the atom’s name. 2.Name the other atoms next, using –ide endings. 3.Use prefixes (mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, etc.) to indicate number of each atom. Do not use mono- with first atom.

8 Alkali metals like to form +1 cations in their ionic compounds. Ionics… some helpful generalizations 1.From the periodic table: Li + Na + K + Rb + Cs + Al forms Al 3+ Alkaline earth metals form +2 ions Aluminum forms +3 ions Be 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ Sr 2+ Ba 2+

9 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 2.Transition metals and post-transition metals form a variety of cations, but not anions. Ti 2+ Ti 3+ Ti 4+ V 2+ V 3+ V 4+ V 5+ Cr 2+ Cr 3+ Mn 2+ Mn 3+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Co 2+ Co 3+ Ni 2+ Ni 3+ Cu + Cu 2+ Zn 2+ Ag + Cd 2+ Hg 2 2+ Hg 2+ Sn 2+ Sn 4+ Pb 2+ Pb 4+ Ga 3+ In 3+ “other metals” are the post-transition metals

10 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 4. Transition elements give the charge as part of their name as a Roman numeral in parentheses. Na + sodium ion Cu 2+ copper(II) ion 3.Cations made from metals carry the name of the metallic element.

11 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 4. Transition elements give the charge as part of their name as a Roman numeral in parentheses. Na + sodium ion Cu 2+ copper(II) ion Mg +2 Co +3 V +5 Ag + Rb + 3.Cations made from metals carry the name of the metallic element.

12 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 4. Transition elements give the charge as part of their name as a Roman numeral in parentheses. Na + sodium ion Cu 2+ copper(II) ion Mg +2 magnesium ion Co +3 cobalt(III) ion V +5 vanadium(V) ion Ag + silver(I) ion Rb + rubidium ion 3. Cations made from metals carry the name of the metallic element.

13 SO 4 2- sulfate Ionics… some helpful generalizations 5.Polyatomic cations have names to be memorized: NH 4 + is ammonium. SO 3 2- sulfite 6.Anions of a single type of atom carry an –ide ending: Cl is chlorine; Cl - is chloride. 7.Polyatomic anions have names that end in –ite or –ate, but very seldom –ide. 8.Anions with –ate endings have one more oxygen atom than anions with –ite endings. S 2- sulfide

14 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 5.Polyatomic cations have names to be memorized: NH 4 + is ammonium. S 2- sulfide SO 3 2- sulfite SO 4 2- sulfate N 3- NO 2 - NO 3 - P 3- PO 3 3- PO 4 3- Cl - ClO 2 - ClO Anions of a single type of atom carry an –ide ending: Cl is chlorine; Cl - is chloride. 7.Polyatomic anions have names that end in –ite or –ate, but very seldom –ide. 8.Anions with –ate endings have one more oxygen atom than anions with –ite endings.

15 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 5.Polyatomic cations have names to be memorized: NH 4 + is ammonium. 6.Anions of a single type of atom carry an –ide ending: Cl is chlorine; Cl - is chloride. 7.Polyatomic anions have names that end in –ite or –ate, but very seldom –ide. 8.Anions with –ate endings have one more oxygen atom than anions with –ite endings. S 2- sulfide SO 3 2- sulfite SO 4 2- sulfate N 3- nitride NO 2 - nitrite NO 3 - nitrate P 3- phosphide PO 3 3- phosphite PO 4 3- phosphate Cl - chloride ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate

16 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 9.The halogens form a series of five anions! Cl - ClO - ClO 2 - ClO 3 - ClO 4 -

17 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 9.The halogens form a series of five anions! Cl - chloride ClO - ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 -

18 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 9.The halogens form a series of five anions! Cl - chloride ClO - hypohlorite ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 -

19 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 9.The halogens form a series of five anions! Cl - chloride ClO - hypohlorite ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 - perchlorate

20 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 9.The halogens form a series of five anions! Cl - chloride ClO - hypochlorite ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 - perchlorate Br - BrO - BrO 2 - BrO 3 - BrO 4 -

21 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 9.The halogens form a series of five anions! Cl - chloride ClO - hypochlorite ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 - perchlorate Br - bromide BrO - hypobromite BrO 2 - bromite BrO 3 - bromate BrO 4 - perbromate

22 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 9.The halogens form a series of five anions! Cl - chloride ClO - hypochlorite ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 - perchlorate I - IO - IO 2 - IO 3 - IO 4 -

23 Ionics… some helpful generalizations 9.The halogens form a series of five anions! Cl - chloride ClO - hypochlorite ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 - perchlorate I - iodide IO - hypoiodite IO 2 - iodite IO 3 - iodate IO 4 - periodate

24 Rules for Naming Ionics 1.Name cation first, then anion. Remember transition metals need () with charge! K 2 Cr 2 O 7 2.Only use parentheses with polyatomic ions, and then only when there are two or more in formula. 3.Do not use capital letters when naming compounds. NaClO 3 Ca(OH) 2 Col 3 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3

25 Rules for Naming Ionics 1.Name cation first, then anion. Remember transition metals need () with charge! K 2 Cr 2 O 7 potassium dichromate 2.Only use parentheses with polyatomic ions, and then only when there are two or more in formula. 3.Do not use capital letters when naming compounds. NaClO 3 sodium chlorate Ca(OH) 2 calcium hydroxide Col 3 cobalt(III) iodide (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 ammonium carbonate

26 Rules for Naming Ionics 1.Name cation first, then anion. Remember transition metals need () with charge! silver(I) perchlorate 2.Only use parentheses with polyatomic ions, and then only when there are two or more in formula. 3.Do not use capital letters when naming compounds. potassium permanganate beryllium cyanide iron(II) nitrate or ferrous nitrate lithium bicarbonate / lithium hydrogen carbonate

27 Rules for Naming Ionics 1.Name cation first, then anion. Remember transition metals need () with charge! AgClO 4 silver(I) perchlorate 2.Only use parentheses with polyatomic ions, and then only when there are two or more in formula. 3.Do not use capital letters when naming compounds. KMnO 4 potassium permanganate Be(CN) 2 beryllium cyanide Fe(NO 3 ) 2 iron(II) nitrate or ferrous nitrate LiHCO 3 lithium bicarbonate / lithium hydrogen carbonate

28 More Ionics KH 2 PO 4 MgHPO 4 FeSO 4 Hg 2 Cl 2 Cu(BrO 2 ) 2 manganese(III) phosphate calcium thiocyanate lead(II) nitrate mercuric chlorate aluminum hypoiodite

29 More Ionics KH 2 PO 4 potassium dihydrogen phosphate MgHPO 4 magnesium hydrogen phosphate FeSO 4 ferrous sulfate or iron(II) sulfate Hg 2 Cl 2 mercurous chloride or mercury(I) chloride Cu(BrO 2 ) 2 cupric bromite MnPO 4 manganese(III) phosphate Ca(SCN) 2 calcium thiocyanate Pb(NO 3 ) 2 lead(II) nitrate Hg(ClO 3 ) 2 mercuric chlorate Al(IO) 3 aluminum hypoiodite

30 Ionics mixed with covalent-moleculars NH 4 SCN Asl 3 CuNO 2 H 2 S Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 calcium phosphate chromium(III) chromate lead(IV) bromide nitrogen trioxide selenium dioxide

31 Ionics mixed with covalent-moleculars NH 4 SCN ammonium thiocyanate Asl 3 arsenic triiodide CuNO 2 cuprous nitrite or copper(I) nitrite H 2 S dihydrogen sulfide Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 zinc(II) acetate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 calcium phosphate Cr 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 chromium(III) chromate PbBr 4 lead(IV) bromide NO 3 nitrogen trioxide SeO 2 selenium dioxide

32 1.An extensive worksheet where you can practice by naming 40 ionic compounds, 40 covalent moleculars, and 40 acids. Answer key also posted. 2.An copy of last year’s nomenclature quiz, again with answers. Use this as a dress rehearsal when you think you are ready. You can miss only 3 to pass. 3.This Powerpoint presentation At the course website, you can download: Nomenclature Certification Quiz Thursday, September 13 th in this room. Periodic table provided.


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