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Ionic Compounds Formula to Name We need to be able to name the chemicals in the antacids!

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Presentation on theme: "Ionic Compounds Formula to Name We need to be able to name the chemicals in the antacids!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ionic Compounds Formula to Name We need to be able to name the chemicals in the antacids!

2 The Language of Chemistry Chemistry has a language all of its own Each element symbol starts with a capital letter EnglishChemistry Element SymbolsLetters Chemical FormulasWords Chemical EquationsSentences

3 Binary Ionic compounds

4 Definitions Binary Ionic Compound- compound containing two elements—one metal and one non-metal + Cation + Cation - Anion - Anion Ionic Compound Ionic bond- bond formed by attraction between + and - ions

5 Metals & Non-Metals Ionic Bonds are between metals & non-metals HHe LiBeBCNOFNe NaMgAlSiPSClAr KCaScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe CsBaLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn FrRaLrRfDbSgBhHsMtUunUuuUubUut MetalsMetalloids Non- metals

6 These compounds have: –2 elements (“binary”) –A metal & a non-metal (“ionic”) To name these compounds: –Write the name of the metal (the cation) –Write the name of the non-metal (the anion) with the suffix “-ide” Identifying & Naming Binary Ionic The subscripts in the formula do not matter when naming this type

7 Example #1 NaCl

8 Example #1 NaCl Cation Anion “Sodium” “Chlorine” becomes “Chloride” Sodium Chloride

9 Example #2 CaBr 2

10 Example #2 Cation Anion “Calcium” “Bromine” becomes “Bromide” CaBr 2 Calcium Bromide

11 Example #3 K2OK2O

12 K2OK2O Cation Anion “Potassium” “Oxygen” becomes “Oxide” Potassium Oxide

13 Let’s Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds CaF 2 Na 3 P NaCl SrBr 2

14 Let’s Practice Calcium fluoride Sodium phosphide Sodium chloride Strontium bromide Example: Write the name for the following compounds CaF 2 Na 3 P NaCl SrBr 2

15 Polyatomic Ionic Compounds

16 Definition Polyatomic Ion- more than one atom that together have a charge + Cation + Cation Polyatomic Ionic Compound- compound containing at least one polyatomic ion - Polyatomic Anion Polyatomic Ionic Compound

17 Common Polyatomic Ions COMMON POLYATOMIC IONS Acetate, CH 3 COO -1 or C 2 H 3 O 2 -1 Ammonium NH 4 +1 Bromate, BrO 3 -1 Bromite, BrO 2 -1 Carbonate, CO 3 -2 Carbonite, CO 2 -2 Chlorate, ClO 3 -1 Chlorite, ClO 2 -1 Chromate, CrO 4 -2 Cyanide, CN -1 Dichromate, Cr 2 O 7 -2 Dihydrogen phosphate, H 2 PO 4 -1 Hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate, HCO 3 -1 Hydrogen phosphate or biphosphate, HPO 4 -2 Hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate, HSO 4 -1 Hydroxide, OH -1 Hypochlorite, ClO -1 Iodate, IO 3 -1 Iodite, IO 2 -1 Nitrate, NO 3 -1 Nitrite, NO 2 -1 Oxalate, C 2 O 4 -2 Perchlorate, ClO 4 -1 Permanganate, MnO 4 -1 Peroxide, O 2 -2 Phosphate, PO 4 -3 Phosphite, PO 3 -3 Silicate, SiO 3 -1 Sulfate, SO 4 -2 Sulfite, SO 3 -2 The Appendix of your book (Page A-2) has the following chart

18 The only cation (front-half) polyatomic ion is “NH 4 ” All other polyatomic ions are anions (back- half) The subscripts within the polyatomic ion is important (it must match exactly with the one on your ion list) If there are parenthesis, the polyatomic ion is inside (ignore the number outside) Help Identifying Polyatomic Ions

19 Practice Identifying Polyatomic Ions Example: Identify and name the polyatomic ion in each compound NaNO 3 NH 4 Cl Ca(OH) 2 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 K 2 CO 3

20 Practice Identifying Polyatomic Ions Example: Identify and name the polyatomic ion in each compound NaNO 3 NH 4 Cl Ca(OH) 2 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 K 2 CO 3 Nitrate Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonium & phosphate Carbonate

21 These compounds have: –More than 2 capital letters (non starting with H) –Contain at least 1 metal & 1 non-metal To name these compounds: –Write the name of the cation (the metal element name or “Ammonium” for “NH 4 ”) –If the anion is a polyatomic ion, write the polyatomic ion’s name just as it is –If the anion is a single non-metal element, write its name with the suffix “-ide” Identifying & Naming Polyatomic Ionic

22 Example #4 NaNO 3

23 Example #4 NaNO 3 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Sodium” “Nitrate” Sodium Nitrate

24 Example #5 K 2 SO 4

25 Example #5 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Potassium” “sulfate” K 2 SO 4 Potassium sulfate

26 Example #6 Ca(OH) 2

27 Example #6 Ca(OH) 2 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Calcium” “hydroxide” Calcium hydroxide

28 Example #7 (NH 4 ) 2 S

29 Example #7 Polyatomic Cation Anion “Ammonium” “sulfur” becomes “sulfide” (NH 4 ) 2 S Ammonium sulfide

30 Let’s Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Na 3 PO 4 NH 4 ClO K 2 CO 3

31 Let’s Practice Calcium nitrate Sodium phosphate Ammonium hypochlorite Potassium carbonate Example: Write the name for the following compounds Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Na 3 PO 4 NH 4 ClO K 2 CO 3

32 Multivalent Metals

33 Definition Multivalent Metal- metal that has more than one possibility for cationic charge The Appendix of your book (Page A-2) has the following chart Common multivalent metals and their charges Cobalt Co +2 Co +3 Copper Cu +1 Cu +2 Iron Fe +2 Fe +3 Lead Pb +2 Pb +4 Manganese Mn +2 Mn +3 Mercury Hg 2 +2 Hg +2 Tin Sn +2 Sn +4

34 These compounds have: –One of the multi-valent metals in that chart To name these compounds: –Write the name of the metal element (cation) –Write the name of the anion (element name with “- ide” or polyatomic ion name) –Determine the total negative charge –Total negative charge = total positive charge for all neutral compounds –Determine the charge on each metal atom –Write the charge in roman numerals in parenthesis after the metal’s name Identifying & Naming Multivalent Metals

35 Common Ions Use the periodic table to determine charges on common elemental anions

36 Example #8 CuCl

37 Example #8 CuCl Cation Anion “Copper” “Chlorine” becomes “Chloride” Copper Chloride

38 Example #8 CuCl Cation Anion “Copper” “Chlorine” becomes “Chloride” Copper Chloride Chloride has a –1 charge -1 charge * 1 ion = -1 A –1 charge needs a +1 charge Therefore, copper must be +1 (I)

39 Example #9 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3

40 Example #9 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Iron” “Carbonate” Iron carbonate

41 Example #9 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Cation Polyatomic Anion “Iron” “Carbonate” Iron carbonate Carbonate has a –2 charge -2 charge * 3 ions = -6 A –6 charge needs a +6 charge and there are 2 iron ions Therefore, iron must be +3 (III)

42 Let’s Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds PbCl 2 PbCl 4 MnO Mn 2 O 3

43 Let’s Practice Lead (II) chloride Lead (IV) chloride Manganese (II) oxide Manganese (III) oxide Example: Write the name for the following compounds PbCl 2 PbCl 4 MnO Mn 2 O 3

44 Ionic Compunds Name to Formula We need to be able to read the formulas for chemicals in the antacids!

45 Your Appendix (Page A-2) has lists of: –Common polyatomic ions –Multivalent metals –Covalent prefixes Use your periodic table to determine the charges of common elements when they form ions Reminders from Section 2.2

46 Binary Ionic compounds

47 Definitions Binary Ionic Compound- compound containing two elements—one metal and one non-metal + Cation + Cation - Anion - Anion Ionic Compound Ionic bond- bond formed by attraction between + and - ions

48 Metals & Non-Metals Ionic Bonds are between metals & non-metals HHe LiBeBCNOFNe NaMgAlSiPSClAr KCaScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe CsBaLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn FrRaLrRfDbSgBhHsMtUunUuuUubUut MetalsMetalloids Non- metals

49 These compounds: –End in “-ide” (except “hydroxide and cyanide”) –Do NOT contain covalent prefixes To write these formulas: –Write the symbol & charge of the first element (the metal, cation) –Write the symbol & charge of the second element (the non-metal, anion) –Add more of the cations and/or anions to have a neutral compound –Use subscripts to show how many of each type of ion is there. Identifying & Naming Binary Ionic

50 Example #1 Sodium chloride

51 Example #1 Sodium chloride Cation Anion Na +1 Cl -1 NaCl

52 Example #1 Sodium chloride Cation Anion Na +1 Cl -1 NaCl Na +1 Cl = 0 The compound is neutral…no subscripts are needed.

53 Example #2 Calcium bromide

54 Example #2 Calcium bromide Cation Anion Ca +2 Br -1

55 Example #2 Calcium bromide Cation Anion Ca +2 Br -1 CaBr 2 Ca +2 Br = +1 Ca +2 Br -1 Br -1 The subscript “2” is used to show that 2 anions are needed = 0

56 Let’s Practice Example: Write the following chemical formulas Cesium chloride Potassium oxide Calcium sulfide Lithium nitride

57 Let’s Practice CsCl K2OK2O CaS Li 3 N Example: Write the following chemical formulas Cesium chloride Potassium oxide Calcium sulfide Lithium nitride

58 Polyatomic Ionic Compounds

59 Definition Polyatomic Ion- more than one atom that together have a charge + Cation + Cation Polyatomic Ionic Compound- compound containing at least one polyatomic ion - Polyatomic Anion Polyatomic Ionic Compound

60 These compounds: –Do not end with “-ide” (except hydroxide & cyanide) –Do not use covalent prefixes To write these formulas: –Write the symbol & charge of the cation & anion –Add additional cations or anions to have a neutral compound –Use subscripts to show the number of ions When using subscripts with a polyatomic ion, you must put the polyatomic ion in parenthesis. Identifying & Naming Polyatomic Ionic

61 Example #3 Sodium carbonate

62 Example #3 Sodium carbonate Cation Polyatomic Anion Na +1 CO 3 -2

63 Example #3 Sodium carbonate Cation Polyatomic Anion Na +1 CO 3 -2 Na 2 CO 3 Na + CO = -1 Na + Na + CO 3 2- The subscript “2” is used to show that 2 cations are needed = 0

64 Example #4 Magnesium nitrate

65 Example #4 Magnesium nitrate Cation Polyatomic Anion Mg +2 NO 3 -1

66 Example #4 Magnesium nitrate Cation Polyatomic Anion Mg +2 NO 3 -1 Mg(NO 3 ) 2 Use parenthesis when adding subscripts to polyatomic ions Mg +2 NO = 1 Mg +2 NO 3 - NO 3 - The subscript “2” is used to show that 2 anions are needed = 0

67 Let’s Practice Example: Write the following chemical formulas Sodium nitrate Calcium chlorate Potassium sulfite Calcium hydroxide

68 Let’s Practice NaNO 3 Ca(ClO 3 ) 2 K 2 SO 3 Ca(OH) 2 Example: Write the following chemical formulas Sodium nitrate Calcium chlorate Potassium sulfite Calcium hydroxide

69 Multivalent Metals

70 Definition Multivalent Metal- metal that has more than one possibility for cationic charge

71 These compounds: –Will have roman numerals To write these formulas: –Same as binary ionic or polyatomic ionic. –The roman numerals tell the charge of the metal (cation) Identifying & Naming Multivalent Metals

72 Example #5 Iron (III) oxide

73 Example #5 Iron (III) oxide Cation Anion Fe +3 O -2

74 Example #5 Iron (III) oxide Cation Anion Fe +3 O -2 Fe 2 O 3 Fe +3 O = -1 Fe +3 Fe +3 O 2- O 2- The subscript “2” and “3” are used to show the numbers of atoms needed = 0

75 Example #6 Copper (II) nitrate

76 Example #6 Copper (II) nitrate Cation Polyatomic Anion Cu +2 NO 3 -1

77 Example #6 Copper (II) nitrate Cation Polyatomic Anion Cu +2 NO 3 -1 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Cu +2 NO = 1 Cu +2 NO 3 - NO 3 - Use parenthesis when adding subscripts to a polyatomic ion = 0

78 Let’s Practice Example: Write the following chemical formulas Iron (II) nitrate Copper (I) chloride Lead (IV) hydroxide Tin (II) oxide

79 Let’s Practice Fe(NO 3 ) 2 CuCl Pb(OH) 4 SnO Example: Write the following chemical formulas Iron (II) nitrate Copper (I) chloride Lead (IV) hydroxide Tin (II) oxide


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