2Classifying Binary Compounds Compounds containing a metal and a nonmetal are binary ionicType I and IICompounds containing two nonmetalsType IIICompounds containing H and a nonmetal = Acids4
3Type III - Binary Compounds of 2 Nonmetals These binary compounds always start with a nonmetal or a metalloid. That’s the easiest way to identify them. They will contain no metals!Name first element in formula first, use the full name of the elementName the second element in the formula as if it were an anionHowever, remember these compounds do not contain ions, so DO NOT USE THE CRISS-CROSS METHOD!!!10
4Type III Binary Molecular Compounds Use a prefix in front of each name to indicate the number of atomsNever use the prefix mono- on the first elementPrefixes: 1-mono, 2-di, 3-tri, 4-tetra,5-penta, 6-hexa, 7-hepta, 8-octa, 9-nona, 10-deca, 11-undeca, 12-dodeca.To write the formula for binary molecular compounds, write the number next to the compound if there is a prefix, if not just write the symbol itself.
6Metal Cations Type I Type II Metals that can only have one possible chargeDetermine charge by position on the Periodic TableType IIMetals that can have more than one possible chargeDetermine metal cation’s charge from the charge on anion6
7Type II Binary Ionic Compounds Contain Metal Cation + Nonmetal AnionMetal listed first in formula & nameName metal cation first, name nonmetal anion secondMetal cation name is the metal name followed by a Roman Numeral in parentheses to indicate its chargeDetermine charge from anion chargeCommon Type II cations in Table 5.2 (page 128 or on Week #3 Ions & Symbols List)Nonmetal anion named by changing the ending on the nonmetal name to -ide8
9Naming Binary Type II Compounds Cu+1 and N-3Hg+2 and O-2Cr+3 and P-3Sn+4 and Cl-1Ni+4 and S-2Iron (III) phosphideManganese (II) fluorideGold (I) tellurideLead (IV) bromideCobalt (III) arsenide
10Ionic CompoundsSometimes you can use the reverse of the criss-cross method to determine the charges for the transition metals.When naming compounds, you do not need to tell how many atoms of each ion are present.
12Figure 5.1: A flow chart for naming binary compounds.
13Ionic CompoundsTernary ionic compounds – contain atoms of three or more different elements, usually a polyatomic ion.Writing the formulas for ternary compounds is done in the same way as binary compounds. The polyatomic ions stays together though.
14Ionic CompoundsWhen you need more than one polyatomic ion in your formula, put parentheses around the ion, and how many of them you need outside the parentheses as a subscript.NEVER MOVE SUBSCRIPTS OF THE IONS, ONLY THE CHARGES!!!
15Writing Formulas for Ternary Ionic Compound Examples Calcium sulfateCa+2 and SO4-2Sodium chlorateNa+1 and ClO3-1Magnesium hydroxideMg+2 and OH-1Potassium phosphateK+1 and PO4-3Iron (III) carbonateFe+3 and CO3-2Tin (IV) chromateSn+4 and CrO4-2Nickel (II) dihydrogen phosphateNi+2 and H2PO4-1Chromium (III) sulfateCr+3 and SO4-2Copper (II) acetateCu+2 and C2H3O2-1Iron (II) permanganateFe+2 and MnO4-1
16Ionic CompoundsWhen naming ternary compounds, name the cation (first symbol in the formula unless it is ammonium, NH4+1) first, and then the rest of the formula, which will only have one name, unless it contains hydrogen.
18Acids Naming & Writing Formulas for Acids All acids begin with a hydrogen, and are neutral compounds.In all acids, the cation is the hydrogen ion, H+1.Anions change their endings when they become acids.
19Acids -ide ions become hydro root ic acid Ex: chloride becomes hydrochloric acid-ate ions become root ic acidEx: nitrate becomes nitric acid-ite ions become root ous acidEx: chlorite becomes chlorous acid
20Acids Naming & Formula Writing Examples Writing Formulas for AcidsSulfuric acidHydroarsenic acidPerchloric acidHypoiodous acidNaming AcidsH3PO3HIHCNH2C4H4O6
21HydratesHydrates are when you have a certain number of water molecules attached to a compound (usually an ionic compound)The number of water molecules is shown after the formula for a compound and separated from the remainder of the compound by a dot.
22HydratesUse the same prefixes as you did when naming binary molecular compounds to tell how many water molecules are present in a hydrate (1 = mono, 2 = di, …)An anhydrous compound is one that contains no water molecules.