Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cations Anions Transition Metal Ions Polyatomic Ions (Table E)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Cations Anions Transition Metal Ions Polyatomic Ions (Table E)"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Cations Anions Transition Metal Ions Polyatomic Ions (Table E)

3 Metallic elements tend to LOSE electrons and become positively charged Group 1A: loses one electron  become +1 Group 2A: lose two electrons  become +2 Group 3A: lose three electrons  become +3

4 Non-metals tend to gain electrons and become negatively charged RULE: The charge of any ion of a Group A nonmetal is determined by subtracting 8 from the group number. Example: Group 7A: -1 charge Group 6A: -2 charge Group 5A: -3 charge

5 Many of the transition metals form more than one cation with different ionic charges Ex. Fe 2+ and Fe 3+

6 Stock System: A roman numeral is used to indicate the positive oxidation state ONLY for an element that can have more than one possible state Example: Fe 2+ iron (II) Fe 3+ iron (III)

7 Tightly bound atoms that behave as a unit and carry a charge Ex: SO 4 2-, HPO 4 2- The names of most polyatomic ions end in –ite or –ate

8 Binary Compounds: Any combination of two elements Ex: NaCl, H 2 O, SF 6 Tertiary Compounds: Any combination of three different elements Ex: KClO 3, H 3 PO 4, (NH 4 ) 2 S Quaternary Compounds: Any combination of four different elements Ex: NaHCO 3, (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4

9 Binary Compounds can be either 1)Ionic: metal and non-metal Ex) NaCl, FeO, BaF 2 2) Covalent: non-metal and non-metal Ex) SO 2, PCl 3

10 To identify an ionic compound, look for a metal and a nonmetal Metal = cation Non-metal = anion Examples: KCl, MgCl 2, CaO, LiBr

11 1) Name the cation first When naming the cation, do not change the name of the metal 2) Name the anion second When naming the anion, keep the root of the element name and change the ending to –ide ***No prefixes!!! Ex) NaCl vs. CaCl 2

12 (ex) BeCl 3 beryllium chloride (ex) KFpotassium fluoride (ex) MgOmagnesium oxide (ex) Na 2 Ssodium sulfide (ex) CaCl 2 calcium chloride

13 For polyatomics, DO NOT change the ending to –ide, keep what is on Table E. (ex) NaOHsodium hydroxide (ex) LiNO 3 lithium nitrate (ex) KMnO 4 potassium permanganate (ex) NH 4 Clammonium chloride (ex) NH 4 OHammonium hydroxide

14 Use Roman Numerals ONLY if there is a metal with more than one ox # listed on the PT ex) Cu 2 Ovs. CuO copper (I) oxide vs. copper (II) oxide (ex) Fe 2 O 3 vs. FeO iron (III) oxide vs. iron (II) oxide

15 1) Cu 2 O copper (I) oxide 2) CrCl 3 chromium (III) chloride 3) FeCl 2 iron (II) chloride 4) CuSO 4 copper (II) sulfate 5) MnBr 3 manganese (III) bromide

16 1) Determine the charges on the cation and anion If there is a roman numeral in the name, it tells you the charge of the first element Ex. iron (III) oxide  Ending of –ate or –ite indicates a polyatomic ion  check charges on RT

17 2) Use the cross-over method to determine the subscripts from the charges Example: Lithium Sulfide  Li 2 S 3) Reduce subscripts to the smallest whole numbers Example: Magnesium Oxide  MgO ** Do not reduce the subscripts of polyatomic ions!

18 Use parentheses around polyatomic ions ONLY if there is more than one Examples: ammonium chloride  NH 4 Cl ammonium phosphate  (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 magnesium nitrate  Mg(NO 3 ) 2 copper (II) phosphate  Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2

19 Write the formula for: 1)Magnesium hydroxide  Mg(OH) 2 2)Tin (II) nitrate  Sn(NO 3 ) 2 3)Nickel (II) acetate  Ni(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 4)Sodium chromate  Na 2 CrO 4 5)Aluminum permangate  Al(MnO 4 ) 3 6)Magnesium phosphate  Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 7)Mercury (II) carbonate  HgCO 3 8)Copper (I) sulfate  Cu 2 SO 4

20 Non-metal to non-metal Example: CO 2, HF, CH 4 The less electronegative element usually comes first

21 Use the prefix system Mono = one Di = two Tri = three Tetra = four Penta = five Hexa = six Hepta = seven Octa = eight Deca = ten

22 1.Name first element. Only use a prefix if there is more than one. 2.Always use a prefix to tell how many of the second element there are and change the ending of the second element to –ide. 3.If the prefix ends in an “o” or an “a”, these letters are dropped for oxygen (ie. 1 oxygen is monoxide, NOT monooxide)

23 (ex1) NOnitrogen monoxide (ex2) N 2 O 4 dinitrogen tetroxide (ex3) PF 5 phosphorus pentafluoride (ex4) XeF 4 xenon tetrafluoride (ex5) CCl 4 carbon tetrafluoride

24 Convert the prefixes from the name into subscripts in the formula Example: dinitrogen pentoxide  N 2 O 5 Do not write a subscript of “1” Example: nitrogen monoxide  NO

25 (ex1) tetraiodine heptoxide I 4 O 7 (ex2) sulfur trioxideSO 3 (ex3) phosphorus pentafluoridePF 5 (ex4) nitrogen trifluoride NF 3 (ex5) disulfur dichlorideS 2 Cl 2

26 Acids are a group of compounds that produce H + ions (hydronium ions) when dissolved in water Chemical formula of acids is generally H n X n = number of hydrogen ions X = anion

27 1)If the acid is binary (contains hydrogen and one other element), start with the prefix hydro- followed by the root of the anion and the suffix –ic, and add the word acid. hydro_______ic acid Ex. HCl hydrochloric acid HI hydroiodic acid H 2 S hydrosulfuric acid

28 2) If the acid contains a polyatomic ion, start with the root of the central atom in the polyatomic ion and add the appropriate suffix followed by the word acid. Suffix: ate  ic ite  ous Ex. H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 3 HNO 3 HNO 2

29 Use the rules for writing the names of acids in reverse to write the formulas for acids. Be sure that the charges cancel!!! Ex. hydrobromic acidHBr Ex. Phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 Ex. hydroiodic acid HI Ex. Hypochlorous acid HClO 2 Ex. Sulfurous acid H 2 SO 3 Ex. Carbonic acid H 2 CO 3

30 A base is an ionic compound that produces OH - ions (hydroxide ions) in water Use the rules for ionic compounds! (nothing new) Ex) NaOHsodium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 calcium hydroxide LiOH lithium hydroxide magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 potassium hydroxide KOH

31 1)An –ide ending generally indicates a binary compound 2)An –ite or –ate means a polyatomic ion that includes oxygen in its formula 3)Prefixes in a name indicate the compound is molecular 4)A Roman numeral after the name of a cation shows the ionic charge of the cation


Download ppt "Cations Anions Transition Metal Ions Polyatomic Ions (Table E)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google