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Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 1 Classifying Binary Compounds Binary ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal. –Type.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 1 Classifying Binary Compounds Binary ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal. –Type."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 1 Classifying Binary Compounds Binary ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal. –Type I and II Compounds containing two nonmetals –Type III Compounds containing H and a nonmetal = Acids

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 2 Metal Cations Type I –Metals that can only have one possible charge –Charge determined by position on the Periodic Table (group 1A: +1; group 2A: +2) Type II –Metals that can have more than one possible charge (transition metals) –Metal cation’s charge (usually +1, +2, +3, or +4) determined from the charge on anion

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 3 The Modern Periodic Table

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 4 Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Contain Metal Cation from Groups 1A, 2A or Al, Ga, & In (metals with only one possible ionic charge) + Nonmetal Anion Metal listed first in formula & name Name metal cation first, name nonmetal anion second Nonmetal anion named by changing the ending on the nonmetal name to –ide

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 5 Name the following Type I Compounds: You must know the simple cations and anions in Table 5.1 MgCl 2 K 2 O CaBr 2 BaS

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 6 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds Metal cation name is the metal name followed by a Roman numeral in parentheses to indicate its charge –Determine charge from anion charge –Common Type II cations in Table 5.2 Nonmetal anion named by changing the ending on the nonmetal name to -ide

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 7 Determining the Charge on a Cation – Au 2 S 3 Determine the charge on the anion –Au 2 S 3 : the anion is S, since it is in Group 6A, and its charge is –2 Determine the total negative charge –Since there are 3 S in the formula, the total negative charge is –6 Determine the total positive charge –Since the total negative charge is -6, the total positive charge is +6 Divide by the number of cations –Since there are 2 Au in the formula & the total positive charge is +6, each Au has a +3 charge

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 8 Name the following Type II compounds: CrCl 3 CrCl 2 Cu 2 O CuO Fe 2 S 3

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 9 Type III - Binary Compounds of Two Nonmetals Name first element in formula first. Use the full name of the element. Name the second element in the formula as if it were an anion. –However, remember these compounds do not contain ions! Use a prefix in front of each name to indicate the number of atoms. Never use the prefix mono- on the first element.

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 10 Prefixes Drop last “a” in the prefix if the name begins with vowel: N 2 O 5 dinitrogen pentoxide (not pentaoxide) octa-8 hepta-7 hexa-6 penta-5 tetra-4 tri-3 di-2 mono- (not used on first nonmetal)1 PrefixSubscript

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 11 Name the following Type III compounds: CCl 4 N 2 O 3 PCl 3 PCl 5 CO

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 12 Roadmap for Naming Binary Compounds

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 13 Classify and name the following binary compounds: OCl 2 CaBr 2 CuS B 2 O 3

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 14 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are charged entities that contain more than one atom (e.g. HSO 4 - ) –Must memorize name, formula, and charge –Table 5.4 Polyatomic compounds contain one or more polyatomic ions. To name these compounds you must learn to recognize the polyatomic ions. (NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 ) ammonium acetate

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 15 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions (cont.) Name polyatomic compounds by naming cation and anion. –Non-polyatomic ions named like Type I and II Na 2 SO 4 sodium sulfate Polyatomic acids contain H + and a polyatomic anion.

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 16 Names of Common Polyatomic Ions

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 17 Oxyanions -ate ion –chlorate = ClO 3 - -ate ion plus 1 O  same charge, per- prefix –perchlorate = ClO 4 - -ate ion minus 1 O  same charge, -ite suffix –chlorite = ClO 2 - -ate ion minus 2 O  same charge, hypo- prefix, -ite suffix –hypochlorite = ClO -

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 18 Patterns for Polyatomic Ions Elements in the same column on the periodic table form similar polyatomic ions. –Same number of O’s and same charge ClO 3 - = chlorate  BrO 3 - = bromate If the polyatomic ion starts with H, add hydrogen- before the ion’s name and add one to the charge. CO 3 2- = carbonate  HCO 3 - = hydrogen carbonate

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 19 Name the following compounds: Na 3 PO 4 FeCO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 Ca(CN) 2

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 20 Naming Acids Formulas always begin with H as first element Can be thought of as consisting of H + cation and anion Binary acids have H + cation and a nonmetal anion Oxyacids have H + cation and a polyatomic anion

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 21 Naming Acids (cont) If the anion does not contain oxygen, use the prefix hydro- plus the suffix –ic attached to the root name of the element followed by the word acid. HBr: When the anion contains oxygen, use the root name of the central element of the anion, with a suffix –ic or –ous, followed by the word acid. When the anion name ends in -ate, the suffix –ic is used. When it ends in –ite, the suffix –ous is used. H 2 SO 4 : H 2 SO 3 : HNO 3 : HNO 2 :

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 22 Naming Acids (Summary)

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 23 Writing Formulas from Names For Type I, Type II, polyatomic compounds and acids: –Determine the ions present. –Determine the charges on the cation and anion. –Balance the charges to get the subscripts. For Type III compounds, use the prefixes to determine the subscripts.

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 24 Write the formula for each of the following compounds: diboron trioxide copper(III) bromide chromium (II) permanganate phosphorus tribromide


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