Presentation on theme: "FIRST AID Presented By: A. K. Mishra PGT-Geography JNV, Koraput."— Presentation transcript:
1FIRST AIDPresented By:A. K. MishraPGT-GeographyJNV, Koraput
2Essential Question????? WATCH OUT THE VEDIO What can be done between an accident and arrival of doctor?Post your answer in the message board in introduction page.
3DEFINITION- FIRST AID OBJECTIVES Measures to be taken immediately after an accident not with an idea to cure but in order to prevent further harm being done.-Encyclopedia BritannicaOBJECTIVESTo preserve life.To prevent the victim’s condition from worsening.To promote recovery.
4BE CALM- DO NOT PANIC GOALS OF FIRST AID Golden Rule of First Aid: Restore and maintain vital function like Air passage, Breathing and CirculationTo prevent further injuryTo reassure the victim and make him or her comfortable.Golden Rule of First Aid:BE CALM- DO NOT PANIC
5ASSESSING THE VICTIM CIRCULATION Recovery position BREATHING AIRPASSAGERESPONSEDANGER
6ASSIGNMENTS What are the objectives of a First aider? Post your Answer in the group activity page of First Aid project inWhat are the objectives of a First aider?What is the golden rule of First aid?How to check circulation?Why to check danger before providing first aid to a patient?Name the steps to be followed for assessing the victim for first aid.
7RESEARCH BOOKS WEB LINKS Prathmic Chikitsa in Oriya Search through the following books in the library and web links to find out important information about First Aid……..BOOKSPrathmic Chikitsa in OriyaCommon First Aid in EnglishWEB LINKScom.aucomorg.au
8SURVEY It’s a group activity. The moot point here are…….. Objectives of Survey.Whom to survey?Procedure to be Adopted?Procedure to be Adopted?Whether to prepareQuestionnaire?Points to be included inQuestionnaire?
9INTERVIEWINGThe following question needs to be answered before proceeding for interview?Whether go for pre-structured questionnaire or Participatory appraisal?Whom to survey?Whether it should be a sample survey or a whole survey?Division of work among groups.
10DIVISION OF WORK GROUP – A GROUP – B GROUP - C GROUP – D The members ofThis group willConduct surveyOf the classVI and VIIGROUP – BThe members ofThis group willConduct surveyOf the classVIII and IXGROUP - CThe members ofThis group willConduct surveyOf the classX and XI (Hum)GROUP – DThe members ofThis group willConduct surveyOf the classXI (Sc) and XII
11proper first procedure followed? QUESTIONNAIRELets prepare questionnaire keeping the objectives in mind. Find out the points on which the survey to be conducted..Ailment faced?Age of the victim?Danger points?Who helped?proper first procedure followed?
14Wash the wound with clean water. EXTERNAL BLEEDINGHEARTARTERYVEINCAPILLARYBlood movearound bodyunder pressurefrom heart.Damage to itBright red colourblood spurtwith eachheart beatDamage to itdarker red colourblood tendto flowDamage to itbright red colourblood andOozes.Wash the wound with clean water.Apply pressure over it to check bleeding.Apply bandage.Monitor consciousness, pulse and breathing.Apply roller bandage in penetrating object without removing it.
15Treatment: If conscious, lie the casualty down with legs elevated. INTERNAL BLEEDINGBleeding from anus, ears, lungs, stomach, intestines, under the skin, urinary tract etc.VisibleConcealPale face, thirst, rapid & weak pulse, pain or discomfort, nausea or vomiting, shockTreatment:If conscious, lie the casualty down with legs elevated.If unconscious, recovery position and elevate the legs
16NOSE BLEEDING AMPUTATION Pinch the fleshy part of the nose.TreatmentLean casualty slightly forward.Apply cool, compress to nose.AMPUTATIONTreat as for Bleeding from wound.Collect the amputated part, keep it dry, DO NOT wash or cleanPlaced it in iced water, DO NOT allow amputated part to come in direct contact with ice.
17SHOCKIt is a severe life threatening condition should be treated with top priority.Causes:Loss of BloodAbdominal emEmergenciesLoss of BodyFluidHeart AttackSepsis or Toxicity
18Assessment of the Patient ObservationHealthyShockedSkin ConditionPink, warm,dryPale, cold, wetConscious StateAlert and aware of time and placeAltered, confused, aggressivePulse Adult Child InfantPer Minute 60 – – – 160Rapid – above upper limitsRespiration Adult Child InfantPer Minute 12 – – – 30SIGN &SYMPTOMSPale, cool, clammy skin & thirstRapin, shallow breathing & rapid, weak pulseNausea and VomitingLoss of body fluids or high temp if sepsisProgressive ‘shutdown of body’s vital function
19Treatment of the Patient CONTROL ANYBLEEDINGIF CONSCIOUS:LIE THE CASUALTY WITH ELEVATED LEGSIF UNCONSCIOUS:RECOVERY POSITION WITH ELEVATED LEGSMAINTAIN BODY TEMPERATURETREAT ANY INJURY
20BURN & SCALDS TYPES OF BURN Burn are injuries that damage and kill skin cells.Scalds are caused by contact with wet heat such boiling fluid, stream etc.TYPES OF BURNSuperficialFull ThicknessPartial Thickness
21DOS DON’TS CARE & TREATMENT Cool the burn only with clean water. Cover with a clean, non-stick sterile dressingRemove tight clothing and objects. e.g. ring, necklace etc.Treat for shock if the burn is severe.Avoid contamination in any formSeek medical aid if the burn size if larges then your palm, child or chemical burn etc.DON’TSBreak Blisters.Attempt to remove bitumen form the skin or eyes.Use lotions or cream.Have excessive cooling resulting in shivering
22FRACTUREThere are 206 bones in the human body.The skeleton hold our skin up.Bones acts as factories for essential blood cells through bone marrow.It is the integral part of body strength.Some bones have protective function (skull) , some have supportive function (Pelvis), other associated with muscles, nerves and blood vessels.
23TYPES OF FRACTURE Direct Indirect Spontaneous Green Stick Causes of OPENCLOSEDCOMPLICATED
24SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Pale , cool, clammy skin Associated wound Rapid, weak pulsePain at the siteTendernessLoss of Power to limbAssociated woundAssociated Organ DamageNauseaDeformity.Care & TreatmentImmobilize the affected limbs.Adequate splinting the injuryCheck circulation after splint or slingAbsent of pulse, pale appearance, lack of warmth, swelling are sign of tight bandaging.
25FRACTURE ARM/ COLLAR BONE Check for pulse in the handTreat any woundPad bony prominencesSecure splint above and below fracture.Reassess pulseApply appropriate slingAdjust bandage or sling if required
26Check for pulse in the leg. Treat any wound. Immobilise the limb. FRACTURE OF LEGSCheck for pulse in the leg.Treat any wound.Immobilise the limb.Pad bony prominences.Reassess circulation below injuryAdjust bandages if required.
27Check for pulses in both legs. Bend legs at knee FRACTURE PELVISCall 102 for ambulance.Check for pulses in both legs.Bend legs at kneeSupport both hips with folded blanketsDiscourage attempts to urinate.Adjust bandages if required.Care must be exercised as it my leads to serious complication.
28It is a common injury in sports FRACTURE JAWIt is a common injury in sportsPain in the jaw, unable to speak properly, trouble in swallowing are some of the sign and symptom.Call 102 for ambulanceSit the casualty leaning slightly forwardRest the injured jaw on a pad held by the casualty.Observe breathing carefully.
29It involves the displacement of bone from a joint. DISLOCATIONIt involves the displacement of bone from a joint.Sign & SymptomsSudden pain in the affected jointLoss of power and movementDeformity and swelling of the jointTendernessTemporary paralysis of the injured limb.Care & TreatmentSupport the limb in comfortable position.Seek medical aid.Any attempt to reduce a dislocation is to be made by doctor only.
30SPRAINIt involves the over-extension of a joint, usually with a partial rapture of ligament.Sudden pain, loss of power, bruising, swelling, tender etc are signs & symptoms.Treat the patient with RICESeek medical aid.STRAINIt involves over-stretching of the major muscles or tendons.Pain increasing on movement, audible crack sound, discernible gap between muscle & bone, tenderness, swelling etcRiCE, Avoid stretching for 24 hrBRUSINGIt is bleeding by damaged blood vessels below the skin.History of a blow, pain, tenderness, swelling, discolouring,RICE, After four hours, gentle exercise.RICE: Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevate the injured part.
31SPINAL INJURYThe spinal column consists of a series of interconnected bones, called vertebrae, which enclose the spinal cord, an integral part of central nervous system.Parts of SpinalColumn:Cervical Spine (neck), 7 vertebraeThoracic Spine (Chest), 12 vertebraeLumber Spine (back), 5 VertebraeFused Vertebra of the sacrumA Small Vertebra called Coccyx
32Sign & Symptoms History of trauma Pulse my be fast or slow Any injury to the spinal cord has serious ramification like Quadriplegia, paraplegia, chronic back pain etc. Its sign & symptoms are:History of traumaPulse my be fast or slowPale, cool, clammy skinAbsent of feeling in limbsAbsence of pain in limbs despite of injuryInability to move armsOnset of shock
33Care & Treatment Clear air passage with out moving head. Call 102 for ambulance.Maintain body temperatureExtreme care during initial examination.Immobilise the victim with bandages.
34ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES Formative AssessmentSummative AssessmentAuthentic Assessment.A rubric is a scoring guide that clearly differentiates levels of student performance. It provides a clear description of quality student work and serves as a guide for students as they work to meet or exceed performance standards
35Critical Thinking Essential Question: Provocative Open-ended ChallengingRelated to Life and ExperiencesConsistant with curriculum StandardSignificant
36Project Based Learning Lunching ProjectMilestonesPlanning ResourcesDirect InstructionAssessmentCapturing ArtifactsCelebrating Completion