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FIRST AID Presented By: A. K. Mishra JNV, Koraput PGT-Geography.

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Presentation on theme: "FIRST AID Presented By: A. K. Mishra JNV, Koraput PGT-Geography."— Presentation transcript:

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2 FIRST AID Presented By: A. K. Mishra JNV, Koraput PGT-Geography

3 WATCH OUT THE VEDIO Essential Question????? What can be done between an accident and arrival of doctor? Post your answer in the message board in introduction page.

4 DEFINITION- FIRST AID Measures to be taken immediately after an accident not with an idea to cure but in order to prevent further harm being done. -Encyclopedia Britannica Measures to be taken immediately after an accident not with an idea to cure but in order to prevent further harm being done. -Encyclopedia Britannica OBJECTIVES To preserve life. To prevent the victim’s condition from worsening. To promote recovery. To preserve life. To prevent the victim’s condition from worsening. To promote recovery.

5 GOALS OF FIRST AID Restore and maintain vital function like Air passage, Breathing and Circulation To prevent further injury To reassure the victim and make him or her comfortable. Restore and maintain vital function like Air passage, Breathing and Circulation To prevent further injury To reassure the victim and make him or her comfortable. Golden Rule of First Aid: BE CALM- DO NOT PANIC

6 DANGER RESPONSE AIRPASSAGE BREATHING ASSESSING THE VICTIM CIRCULATION Recovery position

7 ASSIGNMENTS What are the objectives of a First aider? What is the golden rule of First aid? How to check circulation? Why to check danger before providing first aid to a patient? Name the steps to be followed for assessing the victim for first aid. What are the objectives of a First aider? What is the golden rule of First aid? How to check circulation? Why to check danger before providing first aid to a patient? Name the steps to be followed for assessing the victim for first aid. Post your Answer in the group activity page of First Aid project in

8 RESEARCH Search through the following books in the library and web links to find out important information about First Aid…….. Prathmic Chikitsa in Oriya Common First Aid in English Prathmic Chikitsa in Oriya Common First Aid in English BOOKS WEB LINKS com.au com org.au

9 SURVEY It’s a group activity. The moot point here are…….. Whom to survey? Objectives of Survey. Procedure to be Adopted? Whether to prepare Questionnaire? Whether to prepare Questionnaire? Points to be included in Questionnaire? Points to be included in Questionnaire?

10 INTERVIEWING The following question needs to be answered before proceeding for interview?  Whether go for pre-structured questionnaire or Participatory appraisal?  Whom to survey?  Whether it should be a sample survey or a whole survey?  Division of work among groups.  Whether go for pre-structured questionnaire or Participatory appraisal?  Whom to survey?  Whether it should be a sample survey or a whole survey?  Division of work among groups.

11 DIVISION OF WORK GROUP – A The members of This group will Conduct survey Of the class VI and VII GROUP – B The members of This group will Conduct survey Of the class VIII and IX GROUP - C The members of This group will Conduct survey Of the class X and XI (Hum) GROUP – D The members of This group will Conduct survey Of the class XI (Sc) and XII

12 QUESTIONNAIRE Ailment faced? Age of the victim? Danger points? Who helped? proper first procedure followed? Ailment faced? Age of the victim? Danger points? Who helped? proper first procedure followed? Lets prepare questionnaire keeping the objectives in mind. Find out the points on which the survey to be conducted..

13 QUESTIONNAIRE

14 BLEEDING External Internal Incision Laceration Puncture Abrasion Amputation

15 EXTERNAL BLEEDING ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARY HEART Blood move around body under pressure from heart. Damage to it Bright red colour blood spurt with each heart beat Damage to it darker red colour blood tend to flow Damage to it bright red colour blood and Oozes.  Wash the wound with clean water.  Apply pressure over it to check bleeding.  Apply bandage.  Monitor consciousness, pulse and breathing.  Apply roller bandage in penetrating object without removing it.  Wash the wound with clean water.  Apply pressure over it to check bleeding.  Apply bandage.  Monitor consciousness, pulse and breathing.  Apply roller bandage in penetrating object without removing it.

16 INTERNAL BLEEDING VisibleConceal Bleeding from anus, ears, lungs, stomach, intestines, under the skin, urinary tract etc. Pale face, thirst, rapid & weak pulse, pain or discomfort, nausea or vomiting, shock Treatment:  If conscious, lie the casualty down with legs elevated.  If unconscious, recovery position and elevate the legs Treatment:  If conscious, lie the casualty down with legs elevated.  If unconscious, recovery position and elevate the legs

17 NOSE BLEEDING Treatment Pinch the fleshy part of the nose. Lean casualty slightly forward. Apply cool, compress to nose. AMPUTATION Treat as for Bleeding from wound. Collect the amputated part, keep it dry, DO NOT wash or clean Placed it in iced water, DO NOT allow amputated part to come in direct contact with ice.

18 SHOCK It is a severe life threatening condition should be treated with top priority. Causes: Abdominal em Emergencies Loss of Body Fluid Heart Attack Sepsis or Toxicity Loss of Blood

19 Assessment of the Patient ObservationHealthyShocked Skin ConditionPink, warm,dryPale, cold, wet Conscious State Alert and aware of time and place Altered, confused, aggressive Pulse Adult Child Infant Per Minute 60 – – – 160 Rapid – above upper limits Respiration Adult Child Infant Per Minute 12 – – – 30 Rapid – above upper limits SIGN & SYMPTOMS  Pale, cool, clammy skin & thirst  Rapin, shallow breathing & rapid, weak pulse  Nausea and Vomiting  Loss of body fluids or high temp if sepsis  Progressive ‘shutdown of body’s vital function  Pale, cool, clammy skin & thirst  Rapin, shallow breathing & rapid, weak pulse  Nausea and Vomiting  Loss of body fluids or high temp if sepsis  Progressive ‘shutdown of body’s vital function

20 Treatment of the Patient CONTROL ANY BLEEDING IF CONSCIOUS: LIE THE CASUALTY WITH ELEVATED LEGS IF UNCONSCIOUS: RECOVERY POSITION WITH ELEVATED LEGS MAINTAIN BODY TEMPERATURE TREAT ANY INJURY

21 BURN & SCALDS  Burn are injuries that damage and kill skin cells.  Scalds are caused by contact with wet heat such boiling fluid, stream etc.  Burn are injuries that damage and kill skin cells.  Scalds are caused by contact with wet heat such boiling fluid, stream etc. TYPES OF BURN Superficial Full Thickness Partial Thickness

22 CARE & TREATMENT DOS  Cool the burn only with clean water.  Cover with a clean, non-stick sterile dressing  Remove tight clothing and objects. e.g. ring, necklace etc.  Treat for shock if the burn is severe.  Avoid contamination in any form  Seek medical aid if the burn size if larges then your palm, child or chemical burn etc. DOS  Cool the burn only with clean water.  Cover with a clean, non-stick sterile dressing  Remove tight clothing and objects. e.g. ring, necklace etc.  Treat for shock if the burn is severe.  Avoid contamination in any form  Seek medical aid if the burn size if larges then your palm, child or chemical burn etc. DON’TS  Break Blisters.  Attempt to remove bitumen form the skin or eyes.  Use lotions or cream.  Have excessive cooling resulting in shivering DON’TS  Break Blisters.  Attempt to remove bitumen form the skin or eyes.  Use lotions or cream.  Have excessive cooling resulting in shivering

23 FRACTURE  There are 206 bones in the human body.  The skeleton hold our skin up.  Bones acts as factories for essential blood cells through bone marrow.  It is the integral part of body strength.  Some bones have protective function (skull), some have supportive function (Pelvis), other associated with muscles, nerves and blood vessels.  There are 206 bones in the human body.  The skeleton hold our skin up.  Bones acts as factories for essential blood cells through bone marrow.  It is the integral part of body strength.  Some bones have protective function (skull), some have supportive function (Pelvis), other associated with muscles, nerves and blood vessels.

24 Causes of Fracture: Indirect Spontaneous Green Stick Direct TYPES OF FRACTURE OPEN CLOSEDCOMPLICATED

25 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Pale, cool, clammy skin Rapid, weak pulse Pain at the site Tenderness Loss of Power to limb Pale, cool, clammy skin Rapid, weak pulse Pain at the site Tenderness Loss of Power to limb Associated wound Associated Organ Damage Nausea Deformity. Associated wound Associated Organ Damage Nausea Deformity. Care & Treatment  Immobilize the affected limbs.  Adequate splinting the injury  Check circulation after splint or sling  Absent of pulse, pale appearance, lack of warmth, swelling are sign of tight bandaging.  Immobilize the affected limbs.  Adequate splinting the injury  Check circulation after splint or sling  Absent of pulse, pale appearance, lack of warmth, swelling are sign of tight bandaging.

26 FRACTURE ARM/ COLLAR BONE  Check for pulse in the hand  Treat any wound  Pad bony prominences  Secure splint above and below fracture.  Reassess pulse  Apply appropriate sling  Reassess pulse  Adjust bandage or sling if required  Check for pulse in the hand  Treat any wound  Pad bony prominences  Secure splint above and below fracture.  Reassess pulse  Apply appropriate sling  Reassess pulse  Adjust bandage or sling if required

27 FRACTURE OF LEGS  Check for pulse in the leg.  Treat any wound.  Immobilise the limb.  Pad bony prominences.  Reassess circulation below injury  Adjust bandages if required.  Check for pulse in the leg.  Treat any wound.  Immobilise the limb.  Pad bony prominences.  Reassess circulation below injury  Adjust bandages if required.

28 FRACTURE PELVIS  Call 102 for ambulance.  Check for pulses in both legs.  Bend legs at knee  Support both hips with folded blankets  Discourage attempts to urinate.  Adjust bandages if required.  Care must be exercised as it my leads to serious complication.  Call 102 for ambulance.  Check for pulses in both legs.  Bend legs at knee  Support both hips with folded blankets  Discourage attempts to urinate.  Adjust bandages if required.  Care must be exercised as it my leads to serious complication.

29 FRACTURE JAW  It is a common injury in sports  Pain in the jaw, unable to speak properly, trouble in swallowing are some of the sign and symptom.  Call 102 for ambulance  Sit the casualty leaning slightly forward  Rest the injured jaw on a pad held by the casualty.  Observe breathing carefully.  It is a common injury in sports  Pain in the jaw, unable to speak properly, trouble in swallowing are some of the sign and symptom.  Call 102 for ambulance  Sit the casualty leaning slightly forward  Rest the injured jaw on a pad held by the casualty.  Observe breathing carefully.

30 DISLOCATION Sign & Symptoms  Sudden pain in the affected joint  Loss of power and movement  Deformity and swelling of the joint  Tenderness  Temporary paralysis of the injured limb. Sign & Symptoms  Sudden pain in the affected joint  Loss of power and movement  Deformity and swelling of the joint  Tenderness  Temporary paralysis of the injured limb. Care & Treatment  Support the limb in comfortable position.  Seek medical aid.  Any attempt to reduce a dislocation is to be made by doctor only. Care & Treatment  Support the limb in comfortable position.  Seek medical aid.  Any attempt to reduce a dislocation is to be made by doctor only. It involves the displacement of bone from a joint.

31 SPRAIN  It involves the over-extension of a joint, usually with a partial rapture of ligament.  Sudden pain, loss of power, bruising, swelling, tender etc are signs & symptoms.  Treat the patient with RICE  Seek medical aid. SPRAIN  It involves the over-extension of a joint, usually with a partial rapture of ligament.  Sudden pain, loss of power, bruising, swelling, tender etc are signs & symptoms.  Treat the patient with RICE  Seek medical aid. STRAIN  It involves over- stretching of the major muscles or tendons.  Pain increasing on movement, audible crack sound, discernible gap between muscle & bone, tenderness, swelling etc  RiCE, Avoid stretching for 24 hr STRAIN  It involves over- stretching of the major muscles or tendons.  Pain increasing on movement, audible crack sound, discernible gap between muscle & bone, tenderness, swelling etc  RiCE, Avoid stretching for 24 hr BRUSING  It is bleeding by damaged blood vessels below the skin.  History of a blow, pain, tenderness, swelling, discolouring,  RICE, After four hours, gentle exercise.  RICE: Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevate the injured part. BRUSING  It is bleeding by damaged blood vessels below the skin.  History of a blow, pain, tenderness, swelling, discolouring,  RICE, After four hours, gentle exercise.  RICE: Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevate the injured part.

32 SPINAL INJURY The spinal column consists of a series of interconnected bones, called vertebrae, which enclose the spinal cord, an integral part of central nervous system. Parts of Spinal Column: Thoracic Spine (Chest), 12 vertebrae Lumber Spine (back), 5 Vertebrae Fused Vertebra of the sacrum Cervical Spine (neck), 7 vertebrae A Small Vertebra called Coccyx

33 Sign & Symptoms Any injury to the spinal cord has serious ramification like Quadriplegia, paraplegia, chronic back pain etc. Its sign & symptoms are:  History of trauma  Pulse my be fast or slow  Pale, cool, clammy skin  Absent of feeling in limbs  Absence of pain in limbs despite of injury  Inability to move arms  Onset of shock Any injury to the spinal cord has serious ramification like Quadriplegia, paraplegia, chronic back pain etc. Its sign & symptoms are:  History of trauma  Pulse my be fast or slow  Pale, cool, clammy skin  Absent of feeling in limbs  Absence of pain in limbs despite of injury  Inability to move arms  Onset of shock

34 Care & Treatment  Clear air passage with out moving head.  Call 102 for ambulance.  Maintain body temperature  Extreme care during initial examination.  Immobilise the victim with bandages.  Clear air passage with out moving head.  Call 102 for ambulance.  Maintain body temperature  Extreme care during initial examination.  Immobilise the victim with bandages.

35 ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES Formative Assessment Summative Assessment Authentic Assessment. Formative Assessment Summative Assessment Authentic Assessment. A rubric is a scoring guide that clearly differentiates levels of student performance. It provides a clear description of quality student work and serves as a guide for students as they work to meet or exceed performance standards

36 Critical Thinking Essential Question:  Provocative  Open-ended  Challenging  Related to Life and Experiences  Consistant with curriculum Standard  Significant Essential Question:  Provocative  Open-ended  Challenging  Related to Life and Experiences  Consistant with curriculum Standard  Significant

37 Project Based Learning  Lunching Project  Milestones  Planning Resources  Direct Instruction  Assessment  Capturing Artifacts  Celebrating Completion  Lunching Project  Milestones  Planning Resources  Direct Instruction  Assessment  Capturing Artifacts  Celebrating Completion

38 THANKS


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