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The Nervous System The body control centre. Functions of the Nervous System Receives, stores & interpret information e.g. from eyes & ears Controls activities.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System The body control centre. Functions of the Nervous System Receives, stores & interpret information e.g. from eyes & ears Controls activities."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nervous System The body control centre

2 Functions of the Nervous System Receives, stores & interpret information e.g. from eyes & ears Controls activities of all body systems to maintain homeostasis within the body Homeo = combining form meaning the same Controls all muscle movements including speech

3 Divisions of Nervous System 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal cord

4 Divisions of the Nervous System cont’d 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) These nerves branch out from the CNS to all parts of body There are: 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves

5 Peripheral Nervous System Nerves of PNS function in a voluntary Manner Peripheral nerves carry impulses from receptors in skin, eyes, ears nose to CNS.  These peripheral nerves are called sensory or afferent nerves Peripheral nerves also carry impulses from CNS to body organs  These nerves are called motor or efferent nerves

6 Division of the Nervous System cont’d 3. Autonomic System (ANS) Nerves carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & some glands

7 Divisions of Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Efferent (Motor) neurons to Muscle & glands Afferent (sensory) neurons from organs muscles & glands Autonomic Nervous System

8 Word component Word RootCombining Form Meaning NeurNeuronerve

9 Neurons and their Function Specialised cells of the Nervous System Cells responsible for transmission of nerve impulses

10 What does a neuron look like? Network of nerves or neurons pg1

11 Word Components Word RootCombining form Meaning PlexPlex/onetwork of nerves CephalCephal/ohead EncephalEncephal/obrain cerebrcerebr/ocerebrum of the brain Act 2

12 The Brain Cerebrum – large brain Cerebellum – Little brain

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14 Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) Is a result of disruption to blood supply (i.e. ischaemia) to part of the brain Ischaemia to cerebrum can cause brain cells to die and is known as an infarct Paralysis and loss of speech can occur because cells of the cerebrum control many body movements Severity depends on what part of the brain is affected

15 Cerebral Cortex Is the outer layer of cerebrum Contains motor and sensory areas Responsible for consciousness and intelligence

16 Word Components Word Root Combining form Meaning ventriculventricul/oVentricle cranicrani/obones of the skull (cranium) gangligangli/oknot of group of nerve cell bodies

17 More word components Meningmening/o, mening/imembrane Radiculradicul/ospinal nerve roots Myelmyel/omarrow, spinal cord Pleg-plegiaparalysis Aesthesiaesthesi/osensation NarcNarc/ostupor – abnormal sleep induced by a drug AlgesAlgesi/o, -algesiasense of pain Rachirachi/ospine Act 3

18 Other parts of brain PartCombining form Function Cerebrumcerebr/oresponsible for thoughts,judgements,memory,sensation cerebellumcerebell/ocoordinates voluntary movement Thalamusthalam/ogrey matter; neurons relays sensory messages e.g. pain to cerebral cortex Hypothalamushas neurons that control body temperature, sleep, appetite, & emotions Brain Stem – pons medulla oblongata relays messages to cerebrum, cerebellum, & spinal cord responsible for breathing, heart rate, and heat

19 CRANIUM CEREBRUM CEREBELLUM PONS MEDULLA OBLONGATA THE BRAIN Hypothalamus Thalamus

20 Spinal Cord Extends from the medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra Carries nerves that affect limbs &lower parts of body Is the pathway for impulses to & from brain Inner section composed of grey matter Outer section composed of white matter

21 Meninges What are the layers surrounding brain & spinal Cord? 1. Dura mater – outer membrane contains channels for blood to enter brain tissue. Subdural space is below the dura & contains blood vessels 2. Arachnoid membrane – next layer. Subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 3. Pia mater – layer closest to brain

22 Rachiocentesis Procedure to take sample of CSF from spinal cord fro testing Also known as a lumbar puncture or spinal tap Act 4

23 Conditions of Nervous System ConditionMeaning Alziemers Diseasedeterioration of mental capacity causing degeneration of neurons in cerebral cortex Palsy Bells Palsy Cerebral Palsy unilateral facial paralysis due to disorder of facial nerve partial paralysis & lack of muscular coordination due to damage to cerebrum during birth Parkinson’s Diseasedegeneration of brain nerves leading to tremors, weakness, & slowness of movement Multiple Sclerosisconduction of nerve impulses is prevented due to parasthesia, leading to muscle weakness, unsteady gait & paralysis Epilepsyrecurrent seizures & /or fitting

24 Word Components Word partMeaning -lexiacondition of speech/ words mening/omeninges myel/ospinal cord or bone marrow occipit/ooccipit, posterior region of the skull -paresisweakness, slight paralysis -plegiaparalysis plexusnetwork of vessels or nerves synapsemembrane to membrane contact of one nerve cell to another

25 Abbreviations CAT or CT Scan Computerized Axial Tomography- x rays are beamed at different angles to produce images and examine soft tissues of the body EEGElectroencephalogram – recording of brain waves MRIMagnetic Resonance Imaging – uses movement of hydrogen to a large magnetic field to produce images of internal soft tissues

26 Conditions & Terms anaesthesialoss of sensation resulting from medication analgesialoss or reduction of pain sensation encephalitisinflammation of the brain hemiparesisweakness on one side (half) of body hemiplegiaparalysis of one side (half ) of body hydrocephalusexcessive amount of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain paralysiscomplete or partial loss of controlled movement sciaticapain that radiates down the sciatic nerve, affecting buttock, thigh, and foot


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