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Relationships Are Complicated!. Where we live and what we do  Habitat: Where an organism lives and all the resources (biotic and abiotic) it needs to.

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Presentation on theme: "Relationships Are Complicated!. Where we live and what we do  Habitat: Where an organism lives and all the resources (biotic and abiotic) it needs to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Relationships Are Complicated!

2 Where we live and what we do  Habitat: Where an organism lives and all the resources (biotic and abiotic) it needs to survive  Niche: The species’ role in its environment  e.g., type of food, predators, ability to reproduce, habitat needs  Competition: When organisms attempt to use the same resource in the same place and time  Competitive exclusion principle: No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time.

3 What Is Symbiosis? Symbiosis: a close ecological relationship between the individuals of two (or more) different species (sym = together; bio = life)  Competition: Both organisms are harmed  Mutualism: Both organisms benefit  Commensalism: One organism benefits, other is unaffected  Parasitism: Parasite benefits, host is harmed (but not killed)  Predation: Predator benefits, prey is killed  Herbivory: Herbivore benefits, plant is harmed or killed

4 Competition Two flowering plants that compete for the same space (both are harmed due to energy expense).

5 Competition – introduced species Eastern Bluebird losing numbers to the House Sparrow, a non- native species

6 Competition – introduced species Kudzu was introduced to the United States in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, PA. Kudzu “outcompetes” other native plants so they don’t have a place to grow. &imgrefurl=http://www.yahoolavista.com/kudzu/&h=288&w=432&sz=35&hl=en&start=11&tbnid=tp85kKj4SEtsvM:&tbnh=84&tb nw=126&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dkudzu%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D

7 Mutualism - Clownfish and Anemone The anemone protects the clownfish, and the clownfish keeps the anemone free from dirt and debris Clown Fish

8 Mutualism - Dove and cactus Cactus provides fruit for the dove; dove eats the fruit (including the seed) and transports the seed (along a dose of fertilizer!) to a new location.

9 Oxpecker and Ox Oxpecker feeds on ectoparasites of the cattle (such as ticks) and warns the animals of approaching predators

10 Mutualism – Caterpillar and ants Ant & Catepillar Movie Caterpillar feeds the ants with drops of honeydew, ants protect caterpillar from predators

11 Commensalism - Cattle Egret and Cattle Cattle stir up insects, which the egrets eat

12 Commensalism - Shark and Remora Remora (attached by a sucker) gets a ride on the shark, sometimes also gets food dropped by shark

13 Commensalism – whale and barnacle The barnacle larvae swim around, attach to the whale, and form the adult; whale habitat is good location for finding food

14 Parasitism – Cuckoo & Small Nesting Birds Cuckoo lays egg in host’s nest to be raised by host (and kills host’s eggs) YouTube: Cuckoo Bird & Duck

15 Parasitism - Leeches and Mammals Leech feeds on blood of mammal host

16 Parasitism - Tapeworm and Mammal Tapeworm feeds off digestive tract of mammal /~lsola/bio182/labreview/plat yhelminthes/tapeworm.jpg

17 Predation – Spider and prey insects In this Predator-Prey relationship, the spider is eating an insect that it has trapped. /

18 Predation – Snake and mouse The snake is the only one benefiting in this relationship!

19 The Ultimate Predator – a Wildcat!

20 Predator/Prey “Arms Race” Predators and prey are involved in an ever- escalating evolutionary “arms race”! e.g., antelope gets faster, so cheetah gets faster For many populations predation is the main cause of death. BUT the prey determines the predator population When the prey population increases, predator population increases When prey population decreases, predator population decreases

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