2 Habitats and NichesHabitat: the area where an organism lives. Includes both the biotic & abiotic factorsNiche: the full range of physical & biological conditions in which an organism lives & the way in which the organism uses those conditions
3 What might determine where an organism lives? Tolerance to survive in that areaAmount of Resources
4 ToleranceEvery species has its own range of tolerance, the ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental circumstances.The organism must expend more energy to maintain homeostasis, and so has less energy left for growth and reproduction.
5 Resources and the Niche The term resource can refer to any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space.For plants, resources can include sunlight, water, and soil nutrients.For animals, resources can include nesting space, shelter, types of food, and places to feed.
6 Niche includes… Place in the food web Range of temp. organism needs to surviveType of food organism eatsHow it obtains foodWho uses the organism for foodPhysical conditions required to surviveWhen & how organism reproduces
7 Competitive Exclusion Principle No two species can share a niche in the same habitat!!example is the Warblers & bacteria…
8 Warbler Niches Each of these warbler species has a different niche in its spruce tree habitat. By feeding in different areas of the tree, the birds avoid competing with one another for food.
9 The Competitive Exclusion Principle Two species of paramecia (P. aurelia and P. caudatum) were first grown in separate cultures (dashed lines) . In separate cultures, but under the same conditions, both populations grew.When both species were grown together in the same culture (solid line), one species outcompeted the other, and the less competitive species did not survive.
10 Community Interactions Community interactions, such as competition, predation, and various forms of symbiosis can powerfully affect an ecosystem.Cobra Vs. Mongoose
11 CompetitionCompetition: occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use a resource at the same place and time.Direct competition between different species almost always produces a winner and a loser—and the losing species dies out.Trees in competition for light
12 Predation Predation: one organism captures and feeds on another Predators can affect the size of prey populations in a community and determine the places prey can live and feed.
13 Keystone SpeciesChanges in the population of a single species, often called a keystone species, can cause dramatic changes in the structure of a community.In the cold waters off the Pacific coast of North America, for example, sea otters devour large quantities of sea urchins (which eat kelp).
15 Symbiosis Clownfish and sea anemone Symbiosis: Any relationship in which two species live closely togetherMutualism: both species benefitRhino and EgretClownfish and sea anemoneHummingbird and Flower
16 SymbiosisCommensalism: one species benefits, other neither harmed nor helpedBarnacles on a whale
17 Symbiosis Parasitism: one organism lives in or in another & harms it A flea or tick feeds on the blood of its host and may also carry disease-causing microorganisms
18 What determines where an organism might live? ToleranceResources
19 What happens to organisms that try to compete for the same resource? One will win and obtain the resourceThe other may die off if it can’t find its resource
20 What are the three main types of symbiosis? CommensalismMutualismParasitism