Presentation on theme: "Introduction The years after 1870 witnessed an unprecedented growth of European dominance over the world. This was made possible by advanced technology,"— Presentation transcript:
Introduction The years after 1870 witnessed an unprecedented growth of European dominance over the world. This was made possible by advanced technology, strong nation-states and a sense of superiority
Expansion of European Power and the New Imperialism Sought to extend territorial hegemony over others. Unlike the past, this new imperialism moved past simple trading posts and new space for people to live. They sought to transform the entire economy and culture of the dominated people.
Expansion of European Power and the New Imperialism “The Scramble for Africa” New Imperialism saw the very rapid expansion of European power. (See map on page 831 and 833) This rapid expansion was seen as necessary to safeguard a nation-states reputation as a great power and to bring culture and a modern way of life to “uncivilized” people.
Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems After the formation of the German Empire in 1871, Otto von Bismark sought to maintain the peace in Europe. His goals were two fold: Isolation of France politically To protect Germany He managed to maintain an alliance with Austria and a neutrality with the Russian Empire
Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems Bismark managed to maintain this “balance of power” until 1890 when William II came to the imperial throne. William II was bombastic and preferred the glories of imperial colonial and naval expansion He forced Bismark to leave government shortly after his taking the throne
Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems With William II in charge of foreign policy, the carefully constructed alliance system broke down and led to the increased cooperation of: Russia, England and France This was pitted against the alliance of: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy This meant that Germany was now in danger of fighting a 2 front war against France and Russia.
World War I On June 28, 1914, a Slavic nationalist assassinated the heir to the Austrian Imperial throne in Serbia. The Balkan area had always been a hotbed of revolutionary activity and thought as they wanted freedom from Austria. Russia considered themselves a “protector” of the Slavic People which they had a cultural connection with.
World War I With the assassination, Austria proceeded to mobilize against Serbia. Germany wanted Austria to attack: To show their strength as an ally To attack while the world was still angry at Serbia This brought the alliance system into play as Russia, Germany, France and England all mobilized to support their allies. The First World War had begun.
World War I World War I was unlike any other war fought in human history and is considered the first “modern” war New advances in technology and tactics rendered the old way obsolete. This war was the first war that was global in nature.
World War I in the West Germany’s aim was to wipe out France before the huge Russian army could complete its mobilization. See page 851: The Schlieffen Plan Germany nearly defeated the French, but came up just short of Paris. (50 miles). This led to a 4 year period of “trench warfare” which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives with almost no territorial gain for either side.
World War I in the East In the East, Germany was victorious over badly supplied and equipped Russian forces. They inflicted 2 million casualties in the first year of the war. Germany advanced very rapidly (See map page 852).
The Russian Revolution The Russian Empire under Czar Nicholas II was facing a modern war with a nation that was woefully unprepared. Bad leadership Nicholas II was weak willed Rasputin was bringing disrepute to the monarchy People hated Nicholas’s German wife Loss of faith in the bond between Czar and country Incompetent and disorganized army leadership
The Russian Revolution Nicholas II takes personal command of the army in 1915 which takes him out of the capital. This is a critical mistake as it leaves corrupt, incompetent ministers, his wife and Rasputin in control of the government. The imperial government ceases to function by late 1916 and everything is paralyzed.
The Russian Revolution By March 1917, the army was facing complete collapse, the government was paralyzed, hatred of the Czar and his wife was at an all time high and millions of workers were on strike. The years of death and defeat were too much for the Russian people to handle and they erupted into revolution.
The Russian Revolution Nicholas II is forced to abdicate on March 15, 1917 after the army refuses to fire on protestors and strikers in St. Petersburg. The Duma forms a Provisional Government which decides to continue the war. The Duma is also challenged by a new party under Vladimir Lenin known as the Bolsheviks. “Land, Peace, Bread”
The Russian Revolution By October 1917, the Provisional Government had lost support of the people and collapsed. Lenin assumes leadership of Russia and a communist dictatorship comes to power that will rule Russia until 1990. They immediately take Russia out of the war and sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The End of World War I With Russia out of the war, Germany launches a final all-out assault on the Allies to break through to Paris. This offensive fails and Germany is no longer able to continue the war. Austria was collapsing and the people were desperate for peace. Every increasing American troops had been arriving since 1916 and were turning the tide. Kaiser William II abdicates and flees to Denmark
The Settlement at Paris The allies were determined to punish Germany for it’s role in the war. Germany expected a mild punishment and were shocked at the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. They were not allowed to participate in the discussions and were threatened with invasion if they did not sign the treaty. This led to very bitter feelings that will leave the country hungry for revenge.
German Reaction Germany lost all of her colonies Germany was forced to give up certain lands (see map page 865) Germany was forced to pay a huge reparation bill which it could not afford. The most serious issue was the “War Guilt Clause” (See page 867)
In Perspective World War I led to many changes in the world The United States emerged as a great power Germany was left bitter and angry at the treaty it was forced to sign The Soviet Union was now a major player in the world order The roots of the eventual rise of fascist dictatorships in Italy and Germany are set.