Presentation on theme: "The MAIN causes of World War I MILITARISM – The growth of nationalism and imperialism led to increased military spending ALLIANCE SYSTEM – By 1907 Europe."— Presentation transcript:
The MAIN causes of World War I MILITARISM – The growth of nationalism and imperialism led to increased military spending ALLIANCE SYSTEM – By 1907 Europe was divided into two armed alliances IMPERIALISM – Economic and political control over weaker nations NATIONALISM – a devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation
Nationalism: led to rivalries and conflicts between nations. Several ethnic groups were ruled by a European power. Ethnic groups did not want to be dominated by others and wanted independence. Russia and Austria-Hungary disagreed over the treatment of Serbs in central Europe.
Imperialism: European nations built empires. Colonies supplied raw materials and provided markets for manufactured goods. As Germany industrialized, she competed with other nations and colonies made her more competitive. Militarism: Empires had to be defended and European nations increased military spending enormously in the late 19th and early 20th century. By 1890 the strongest nation militarily in Europe was Germany Germany had a strong army and built up a navy to rival England’s fleet. France, Italy, Japan and the United States joined in the naval buildup.
By 1907 there were two major defense alliances in Europe The Triple Entente, once the war started were known as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and Russia and later the United States The Triple Alliance, once the war started were known as the Central Powers, consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were later joined by the Ottoman Empire.
Short-Term Cause June 28th 1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Who Declared War on Who? Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia Russia Declares War on Austria Hungary Germany Declares War on Russia Germany Declares War on France England Declares War on Germany and Austria Hungary
Weapons WWI was the first major war to use chemical weapons: Mustard Gas and Chlorine Gas were the two most popular weapons: They caused suffocation, blindness, and death. machine gun U-boat- sunk many British ships
Both sides used aircraft for observation, limited bombing, and air battles Airplanes were slow, clumsy, and unreliable, The most famous German pilot was Baron von Richthofen (The Red Baron) Tanks Flame throwers Weapons
Germans, Austria-Hungarians vs. French, British and later Americans Germany develops the Schlieffen Plan A plan by Germany to attack and defeat France before Russia would be able to mobilize. This would help avoid Germany fighting a two front war. This led to Great Britain declaring war on Germany.
Battle of the Marne (1914- German Defeat) Took place in September 1914, which brought an end the war of movement that had dominated the First World War since the beginning of August. The German advance was halted which led to stalemate and trench warfare. Trench Warfare on the Western Front
The Allies used four types of trenches: The front-line trench located as far as one mile from the German front line trench. Several hundred yards behind was the support trench Behind the support trench were the reserve trenches. All the trenches were connected by communication trenches.
No man's land: The Territory Between the Trenches The territory between the opposing front trenches was marked with huge craters caused by the shelling; nearly all vegetation was destroyed. Both sides filled this land with barbed wire to slow down any rapid advances by the enemy. The machine gun and the new long-range rifles made movement in this area almost impossible.
Western Front Battles Battle of Verdun – Ten months long – French and German armies. – Estimated 540,000 French and 430,000 German casualties – No strategic advantages were gained for either side. Battle of Somme – English and French vs. Germany – Six months of fighting – Five miles of advancement for Allies – 1 million men killed
Major Battle on the Eastern Front Battle of Tannenberg: – August 1914- First major eastern battle. – Russia was badly defeated and pushed back. – Russia lost millions of men against Germany, undersupplied, under gunned. Russia’s disadvantages – Not Industrialized – Short on Supplies Russia’s advantage – People
Russia Pulls out of the war In March 1917, Nicholas II abdicates his throne, the Russian Duma continues to fight. In October 1917: Lenin and the Bolsheviks take command: The Soviet Union is created. March 1918: Soviets and Germans sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending the war in the East.
US Enters the War in April of 1917 March 1918 Russia and Germany sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Germans now use all resources on Western Front March of 1918 Germany begins a massive attack on France
German troops fatigued US had 140,000 “fresh” troops 2 nd Battle of the Marne (June 1918) Central Powers Crumble – Revolutions in Austria Hungary – Ottoman Empire surrenders – German soldiers mutiny, public turns against Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates on November 9 th 1918 11 th hour of the 11 th day of the 11 th month in 1918 Germany agrees to a cease-fire 8.5 million soldiers dead 21 million soldiers wounded Cost of 338 billion dollars
Meeting of the “Big Four” at the Paris Peace Conference (US, GB, France, Italy) Wilson Proposes his “14 points” “Big Four” create Treaty of Versailles – War Guilt Clause-Germany – Break up of German, Austrian, Russian and Ottoman Empire – Reparations- Germany – Legacy of bitterness and betrayal
Before World War I feeling of optimism and progress of Human Kind After the War feelings of pessimism New forms of Art, Literature, Philosophy and Science – (ex. Surrealism, “Lost” Generation, Psychoanalysis, Existentialism)