Presentation on theme: "Appeals to Emotion Pathos. Pathos Aristotle identified pathos as one of three key ways that writers can appeal to their audiences in arguments Also identified."— Presentation transcript:
Pathos Aristotle identified pathos as one of three key ways that writers can appeal to their audiences in arguments Also identified as emotional appeals These arguments generate emotions (such as anger, fear, jealousy, empathy, pity, and love) in readers to shape their responses and dispose them to accept a claim.
Pathos Also often based on specific examples of suffering or potential threats. Can also include the following aspects: ◦ loaded language that is rich in connotations and vivid images/sounds
What if? Emotional appeals in ads can appeal to your emotions, intrigue you, and perhaps even seduce you. Although there may be more logical reasons to buy or use a product or service, ask yourself, “Would you have acted without an emotional tug?”
Pathos Powerful tool geared to influence what people think and believe. At times, we all make decisions, even important ones, based on our feelings.
It’s All about Moving the Audience When writers and speakers find the words and images that evoke certain emotions in people, they might also move their audiences to sympathize with ideas that they connect to those feelings and even to act on them.
Pathos and Argument Arguments based on emotion probably count more when you're persuading then when you're arguing. You might use reasons and evidence to convince readers something is true when persuading you want people to take action.
How to Use Pathos Using Emotions to Build Bridges ◦ Use emotions to connect with readers to assure them that you understand their experiences or feel their pain. ◦ Such a bridge is especially important when you're writing about matters that readers regard as sensitive. ◦ Before they'll trust you, they want insurance that you understand the issues in depth. ◦ If you strike the right emotional note, you will establish an important connection.
How to use Pathos Using Emotions to Build Bridges cont. ◦ Another obvious way to build an emotional tie is simply to help readers identify with your experiences.
How to Use Pathos Using Emotions to Sustain an Argument ◦ Use to make logical claims stronger or more memorable. ◦ But lay on too much emotion and you may off end the audiences you hoped to convince. ◦ Sometimes a strong emotion (such as anger) adds energy to an argument.
How to Use Pathos Using Emotions to Sustain an Argument cont. ◦ This way, writers can generate emotions by presenting arguments in there starkest terms, stripped of qualifications or subtleties. ◦ Readers or listeners are confronted with core issues or important choices and asked to consider the consequences.
How to Use Pathos Using Humor Humor has always played an important role in argument, sometimes as the sugar that makes the medicine go down. You can slip humor into an argument to put readers at ease, thereby making them more open to a proposal you have to offer. Humor also makes otherwise sober people suspend their judgment and even their prejudices; it can provoke laughter or smiles, not reflection.
How to Use Pathos Using Humor cont. Similarly, it's possible to make a point through humor that might not work in more sober writing. The writer or speaker can use humor to deal with especially sensitive issues. For instance, politicians use humor to admit problems or mistakes they couldn't acknowledge in any other way.
How to Use Pathos Using Humor cont. Not all humor is well-intentioned. ◦ Ridicule—humor aimed at a particular target—is one of the most powerful forms of emotional argument. ◦ But ridicule is a two edged sword that requires a deft hand to wield it. Humor that reflects bad taste discredits a writer completely, as does ridicule that misses its mark. Unless your target deserves assault and you can be very funny, it's usually better to steer clear of humor.
Using Arguments Based on Emotion It is a good idea to spend some time early in your writing or designing process thinking about how you want readers to feel as they consider your persuasive claims. Also consider the effect the story can have on readers. Remember, we can use human-interest stories to give presence to issues or arguments. We can also use a particular incident to evoke sympathy, understanding, outrage, or amusement. Either way…tell an honest story.
Homework Due Thursday, January 8, 2015 Go to the class website to read about pathos and humor. Go to the internet to complete the following assignment: ◦ Find up to two (2) advertisements, cartoons, pictures, etc. (Bring copies to present to the class.) ◦ Identify the subject of your find ◦ Identify the targeted audience ◦ Analyze the emotional appeals. In addition, try to answer this question in your analysis: “How do the appeals connect to the subject or target audience?”
Works Cited Lunsford, Andrea, John Ruszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything's an Argument With Readings. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2010. Print.