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“ The arms are fair when the intent for bearing them is just. ” just. ” Shakespeare - Henry IV Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 21 Lecture 21 INSECTS.

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Presentation on theme: "“ The arms are fair when the intent for bearing them is just. ” just. ” Shakespeare - Henry IV Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 21 Lecture 21 INSECTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 “ The arms are fair when the intent for bearing them is just. ” just. ” Shakespeare - Henry IV Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 21 Lecture 21 INSECTS AND WARFARE

2 Key Points: Insects and the principles of warfare Which principles used by insects in general and social insects in particular influenced warfare What principle do bee-boles make use of? In the Vietnam War: Cu Chi, what principle resulted was used against US troops. In which way did the hessian fly undermine the Americans in the revolutionary war?

3 There ’ s even a book on the subject

4 Insects and Principles of Warfare A long history: >10,000 years *“ …insects in general and social insects in particular, with their spears (stings), (weapons) with their spears (stings), (weapons) chemical poisons (venoms),(bombs, poisons) chemical poisons (venoms),(bombs, poisons) and the apparent discipline of their social existence, and the apparent discipline of their social existence, have served as models for man to emulate in his development of the art of warfare. “ J.T. Ambrose (1974) in the journal ARMY

5 HYMENOPTERA HYMENOPTERA (membranous wing) The bees, wasps & antsThe bees, wasps & ants –The STINGING insects –The leading cause of ENTOMOPHOBIA for good reasons = venomousfor good reasons = venomous VenomVenom –complex with large inter-generic differences mostly proteinaceous & almost always ALGOGENIC – producing painmostly proteinaceous & almost always ALGOGENIC – producing pain –Wasps & Ants: food gathering & defense –Bees: defense only

6 Qualifications of social insects as weapons SocialSocial –lots of individuals in a compact space –the original “ cluster bomb ” Irony: Israeli invasion of Lebanon in Israel charged with an illegal use of American supplied cluster bombs. Ha!! The Tribes of Israel were using biologic “ cluster bombs ” thousands of years earlier!!

7 Living with insects

8 Merrily we grow along, grow along…………….

9 Feed me, feed me

10

11 BIBLICAL REFERENCES Exodus 23:28Exodus 23:28 “ And I will send HORNETS before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, Canaanite, the Hittite, from before thee. ” Deut. 7:20Deut. 7:20 “ Moreover the Lord thy God will send the HORNET among them until they that are left, and hide themselves from thee, be destroyed. ”

12 BIBLICAL REFERENCES, cont. Josh. 24:12Josh. 24:12 “ And I send the HORNET before you, which drove them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites; but not with thy sword nor with thy bow ” [“…it would only be reasonable to regard these (biblical) narratives as excellent illustrations of the early form of biological warfare. ” E. Newfeld ]

13 Chinese bee nests

14 Honey Bees as bio-warfare: Medieval Europe

15 Bee boles in an English castle wall

16 Honey Bees and the U.S. Civil War The battle of Antietam/SharpsburgThe battle of Antietam/Sharpsburg –Antietam; a small creek –Sharpsburg; a small town in western Maryland Time: September of 1862Time: September of 1862 Situation: A Confederate army had crossed into Maryland and was poised for a strike north: Pennsylvania, or worse, Washington, D.C.Situation: A Confederate army had crossed into Maryland and was poised for a strike north: Pennsylvania, or worse, Washington, D.C.

17 Honey Bees and the U.S. Civil War Troops –Union: 87,000 –Confederate: 25,000, later reinforced to 40,000 The Battle –Produced the greatest number of casualties of any Civil War battle (4,000 dead; 20,000 wounded. A near victory for the Union, but indecision & fear prevented a complete victory

18 Cannon Ball Through the Bee Hives

19 The Roulette Apiary, AFTER the cannon ball!!!

20 Hunger games Tracker Jacker:

21 American Revolutionary War HESSIAN FLIESHESSIAN FLIES –What ’ s a Hessian? Native of the present day state of Hesse in GermanyNative of the present day state of Hesse in Germany formerly an independent kingdom/duchy of Germanyformerly an independent kingdom/duchy of Germany In the Revolution, they were mercenary troops hired by the British.In the Revolution, they were mercenary troops hired by the British. –What ’ s a Hessian Fly? Order DipteraOrder Diptera –family Cecidomyiidae - the gall midges

22 American Revolutionary War Hessian flies are pests of wheatHessian flies are pests of wheat –eggs laid in stem of young wheat plant –larval flies feed within the stem, weakening it and ultimately killing the plant. Hessian troops accused of bringing the fly with them and spreading it about the northeastern colonies to sabotage the food production by the “ rebels. ”Hessian troops accused of bringing the fly with them and spreading it about the northeastern colonies to sabotage the food production by the “ rebels. ”

23 A Hessian mercenary 30,000 “ hired ” by the British Ca. 7,000 K.I.A. Ca. 4,500 stayed in America

24 Cricket Fighting Ancient & Primarily Asia

25 Key Points: Insects and the principles of warfare Which principles used by insects in general and social insects in particular influenced warfare What principle do bee-boles make use of? In the Vietnam War: Cu Chi, what principle resulted was used against US troops. In which way did the hessian fly undermine the Americans in the revolutionary war?


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