Presentation on theme: "Antietam/Sharpsburg September 17, 1862. Objectives Learn why the South changed their war plans. Learn what happened at the three distinct battles of September."— Presentation transcript:
Antietam/Sharpsburg September 17, 1862
Objectives Learn why the South changed their war plans. Learn what happened at the three distinct battles of September 17, 1862. Learn what happened as a result of the battle.
Lee Invades Maryland On September 3, 1862, General Lee wrote to Jefferson Davis seeking permission to invade Maryland, take the war out of Virginia, and forage the late summer harvests. Permission is granted, and Lee moves north.
Southern Blunder A copy of Lee’s plans are lost in a meadow at Frederick Md. McClellan now knew Lee had divided his army. But instead of attacking, he delayed allowing some of Lee’s men to rejoin. He finally attacks at South Mountain September 14, but fails to deliver a fatal blow.
Antietam By September 17, both armies had deployed along Antietam Creek by Sharpsburg MD. On that day McClellan’s 70,000 man army would clash with Lee’s forces numbering 40,000. There would be three distinct engagements: Cornfield, Sunken Road, and Burnside Bridge.
Cornfield General Joseph Hooker sent his I Corps into a 40 acre patch of corn. Stonewall Jackson’s men met the advance. The fighting swayed back and forth for four hours.
Hood’s Division The rebels threw in their last reserves, John Bell Hood’s Texans, which brought an end to the fighting at that portion of the battlefield.
Result By 9:00 am over 8,000 dead and wounded covered the field. The Confederates had held.
Sunken Road The Sunken Road was the name the wagon road that went between the farms but the weight of the wagons and erosion had caused the road to sink. This made for a ready made rifle pit.
John B. Gordon In command of the Confederates was Georgian John B. Gordon. He proclaimed, We are going to stay here until the Sun goes down, or victory is won.
Union Advance The Union charged Brown’s position, Joseph K. Mansfield, first time in battle, led the charge. When the confederates opened fire, Mansfield was the first to be struck down.
Bloody Lane Union troops finally gained a position to shoot down on the rebels. The carnage there led to the renaming of the road, “Bloody Lane”. When the fighting ended, over 6,000 casualties had occurred on both sides.
Ambrose Burnside Ambrose E. Burnside, know for his distinctive whiskers, or sideburns, had 12,000 troops assigned to cross the bridge that now bears his name. Then his troops would swoop in in Lee’s troops from behind.
Burnside Bridge A span across Antietam Creek. It was defended by Robert Toombs and only 500 Georgians.
Finally Across After two failures, Burnside offers extra rations of whiskey to soldiers to get across. Two New York regiments get across and drive the confederates from the bluff guarding the bridge. They then start heading for town.
A. P. Hill In the nick of time, General A. P. Hill arrives after a 17 mile march to stop Burnside’s advance.
McClellan’s Failure Lee’s army was out of ammunition. McClellan still had 12,000 men who had not seen action. Had he thrown them into action, he could have crushed Lee’s army and ended the war that day. Instead, fearing the human cost would be too high, he did not attack. The war would continue for 2 and one half more years.
Results There would be over 24,000 casualties, the greatest single day total in American History. Because Lee’s invasion was halted, many northerners considered it a victory. McClellan is relieved of command.
Emancipation Lincoln took the opportunity to announce the preliminary emancipation of the slaves. It would go into effect January 1, 1863.