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Battle of El-Alamein and Operation Torch

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1 Battle of El-Alamein and Operation Torch

2 Thesis The turning point of the Allies’ expulsion of the Axis in North Africa at the battle of El-Alamein during Operation Torch allowed the Allies to penetrate Nazi Germany via southern Italy and begin the liberation of Europe.

3 Who’s Who Allies Great Britain United States Australia/New Zealand
Axis Nazi Germany Franco-Germans Kingdom of Italy (Fought for their territory)

4 Key Roles Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel George Patton
Dwight D. Eisenhower Winston Churchill Franklin D. Roosevelt

5 Background The U.S military was extremely untested and had seen very little combat unlike the very seasoned German Wehrmacht Majority of Northeast Africa was in Allied control, allowing for a land and sea invasion The U.S and the British knew they could not invade mainland Europe at this point The Axis had many air bases in the Mediterranean region making it difficult to invade the eastern parts of North Africa

6 Timeline November 8: British/American troops land in Casablanca (Morocco) and Oran/Algiers (Algeria) September 3: Montgomery stockpiles supplies to overwhelm Germans July 3: Allies repel Rommel’s offensive October 26: Both sides redeploy their forces July 1: Rommel tries to break through British lines October 23: Allies attack, Axis counterattacks; Allies advance August 1: -German forces strengthened with Italy -Churchill appoints Montgomery November 2: Axis retreats, Allies finally break through

7 Map Map of Battle of El-Alamein

8 Braveheart analogy Both the Allies and the Scottish are going up against a experienced and formidable army Like the Allies fear a strong Axis counter attack to their landings, William Wallace (Mel Gibson's character) and his army fear they will be crushed by the English

9 Battle Strategy Stalin pressured the Allies to start a new front near western Europe, so Great Britain and other Allies invaded Axis-occupied north Africa. Eisenhower wanted to get the 60,000 Franco-German troops to join the allies Allies performed a pincer movement with the U.S’s central and Eastern task forces invading northern Algeria while George S. Patton and 2nd armored division invaded western Morocco The U.S had landings in Safi, Mehndia, Oran and Algiers

10 Strategic Map

11 Why did the Allies win? Rommel’s health was failing
Rommel wasn’t getting new troops or equipment Germany was focusing on Eastern Front Germans ran out of food, fuel, ammunition, and medical supplies Montgomery had a larger troop force; Allies outnumbered Axis on ground and air Montgomery had American supplies and weapons

12 Importance Battle of El Alamein
Turning point in North Africa in favor of Allies Removed Axis powers from Africa Brought the fight for the Western Desert to an end The combined Allied powers were capable of defeating a Nazi army Defeat of Germans → WWII propaganda for Allies (boosted morale and support for the war) US and Britain gained experience and more confidence against the formidable German army

13 Importance Operation Torch Contained German expansion to Europe
Blocked off shipping lanes in the Mediterranean Gave Allies a point to launch into Italy Capture of Italy was crucial for Britain and the US because it gave them a foothold for the future liberalization of Europe Encouraged Franco-Germans to gradually remove themselves from the Axis side and side with Allies Also served as practice for when they would invade Italy and France; higher chance of success (after integrating national armies and generals together)

14 Aftermath It may almost be said, “Before Alamein we never had a victory. After Alamein we never had a defeat.” --Winston Churchill Casualties Rommel 2,349 killed, 5,486 wounded, and 30,121 captured Almost all tanks/artillery lost Montgomery 2,350 killed, 8,950 wounded, and 2,260 missing 400 tanks lost

15 Works Cited "Allies Win at El Alamein." WW2 History. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014. Meyer, Leo J. "Decision To Invade North Africa." Decision To Invade North Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2014. Moody, Sidney C. War in Europe. Novato, CA: Presidio, Print. "Operation Torch (Algeria-Morocco Campaign)." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 10 June Web. 14 May 2014. “Operation Torch - the Allied Invasion of Africa Timeline.” Second World War History. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014. "The Battle of Al-Alamein." N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014. Tucker, Spencer, and Roberts Priscilla Mary. Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Print.

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