2ThesisThe turning point of the Allies’ expulsion of the Axis in North Africa at the battle of El-Alamein during Operation Torch allowed the Allies to penetrate Nazi Germany via southern Italy and begin the liberation of Europe.
3Who’s Who Allies Great Britain United States Australia/New Zealand AxisNazi GermanyFranco-GermansKingdom of Italy (Fought for their territory)
4Key Roles Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel George Patton Dwight D. EisenhowerWinston ChurchillFranklin D. Roosevelt
5BackgroundThe U.S military was extremely untested and had seen very little combat unlike the very seasoned German WehrmachtMajority of Northeast Africa was in Allied control, allowing for a land and sea invasionThe U.S and the British knew they could not invade mainland Europe at this pointThe Axis had many air bases in the Mediterranean region making it difficult to invade the eastern parts of North Africa
6TimelineNovember 8: British/American troops land in Casablanca (Morocco) and Oran/Algiers (Algeria)September 3: Montgomery stockpiles supplies to overwhelm GermansJuly 3: Allies repel Rommel’s offensiveOctober 26: Both sides redeploy their forcesJuly 1: Rommel tries to break through British linesOctober 23: Allies attack, Axis counterattacks;Allies advanceAugust 1:-German forces strengthened with Italy-Churchill appoints MontgomeryNovember 2: Axis retreats, Allies finally break through
8Braveheart analogyBoth the Allies and the Scottish are going up against a experienced and formidable armyLike the Allies fear a strong Axis counter attack to their landings, William Wallace (Mel Gibson's character) and his army fear they will be crushed by the English
9Battle StrategyStalin pressured the Allies to start a new front near western Europe, so Great Britain and other Allies invaded Axis-occupied north Africa.Eisenhower wanted to get the 60,000 Franco-German troops to join the alliesAllies performed a pincer movement with the U.S’s central and Eastern task forces invading northern Algeria while George S. Patton and 2nd armored division invaded western MoroccoThe U.S had landings in Safi, Mehndia, Oran and Algiers
11Why did the Allies win? Rommel’s health was failing Rommel wasn’t getting new troops or equipmentGermany was focusing on Eastern FrontGermans ran out of food, fuel, ammunition, and medical suppliesMontgomery had a larger troop force; Allies outnumbered Axis on ground and airMontgomery had American supplies and weapons
12Importance Battle of El Alamein Turning point in North Africa in favor of AlliesRemoved Axis powers from AfricaBrought the fight for the Western Desert to an endThe combined Allied powers were capable of defeating a Nazi armyDefeat of Germans → WWII propaganda for Allies (boosted morale and support for the war)US and Britain gained experience and more confidence against the formidable German army
13Importance Operation Torch Contained German expansion to Europe Blocked off shipping lanes in the MediterraneanGave Allies a point to launch into ItalyCapture of Italy was crucial for Britain and the US because it gave them a foothold for the future liberalization of EuropeEncouraged Franco-Germans to gradually remove themselves from the Axis side and side with AlliesAlso served as practice for when they would invade Italy and France; higher chance of success (after integrating national armies and generals together)
14AftermathIt may almost be said, “Before Alamein we never had a victory. After Alamein we never had a defeat.”--Winston ChurchillCasualtiesRommel2,349 killed, 5,486 wounded, and 30,121 capturedAlmost all tanks/artillery lostMontgomery2,350 killed, 8,950 wounded, and 2,260 missing400 tanks lost
15Works Cited"Allies Win at El Alamein." WW2 History. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014.Meyer, Leo J. "Decision To Invade North Africa." Decision To Invade North Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2014.Moody, Sidney C. War in Europe. Novato, CA: Presidio, Print."Operation Torch (Algeria-Morocco Campaign)." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust MemorialCouncil, 10 June Web. 14 May 2014.“Operation Torch - the Allied Invasion of Africa Timeline.” Second World War History. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014."The Battle of Al-Alamein." TourEgypt.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014.Tucker, Spencer, and Roberts Priscilla Mary. Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History.Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Print.