In your notebook: how can the Allies turn the tide?
“The Arsenal of Democracy” Date: 1939-1945 Definition: idea that the US would build enough war products to supply the Allies and itself Significance Essential to Allies winning the war US had tremendous unused production capacity Also led to recovery from the Depression
The Battle of the Atlantic Date: 1939-1945 (longest of WWII) Definition: Allied and German forces competing for control over shipping lanes in the Atlantic Ocean Essentially an economic battle: Allies’ goal: protect US shipping to Britain, which was crucial to the war effort Germany’s goal: disrupt US shipping to Britain
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941: Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; US joins the war
The debate over US involvement Stalin (USSR) wants the US and UK to open a second front in France Churchill (UK) wants to be cautious – the UK has already lost a lot of troops – and focus on other theaters Roosevelt (USA) wants to defeat the Nazis Political pressure to defeat Japan Wants to minimize American losses
The North African campaign October-November 1942: Allies win at El Alamein (Egypt) and start pushing back Axis November 1942: Operation Torch – US/UK reinforcements to North Africa May 1943: Axis forces leave North Africa
The Soviets advance February 1943: Battle of Stalingrad ends; Germans retreat Turning point of WWII on the eastern front USSR steadily advances toward Germany
Operation Overlord Meanwhile, the US and UK have been stockpiling troops and materiel in Britain Operation Overlord: planned invasion of northern France By the time it begins: 1.5 million American troops 5 million tons of supplies
In your notebook: -Challenges for the Allies? -Challenges for Germany?
D-Day June 6, 1944 Allied amphibious invasion of Normandy (northern France) Importance of espionage: Allies broke the German codes (Enigma) and monitored troop movements in France Operation Bodyguard: attempt to deceive the Germans about where the amphibious invasion would take place Opens up a second front against the Germans in Europe
The End of the War Battle of the Bulge (December 1944-January 1945): last major German counteroffensive on the Western Front April 1945: Soviet troops surround Berlin April 30, 1945: Hitler commits suicide May 2, 1945: Germany surrenders to the Allies …But what about Japan?