Presentation on theme: "The Changing Nature of Warfare, 1792-1918 Overviews You need to keep this in edit view in order to answer the questions."— Presentation transcript:
The Changing Nature of Warfare, 1792-1918 Overviews You need to keep this in edit view in order to answer the questions
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Identify and describe the weapons technology illustrated here. What were its chief drawbacks? Rifled barrels: what difference did they make on the battlefield? What type of weapon is illustrated on the right? Describe the principal changes these weapons made to fighting by 1900 The photograph shows a group of British machine gunners in 1917: Explain the changing relationship between tactics and weapons technology in the First World War.
Artillery: What was the task of artillery on the battlefield? By 1918, what changes had taken place in artillery design? What was the effect of railways on warfare?
Powered and manned flight was achieved by the Wright brothers in 1903: What were the military applications of flight before and after this achievement? The production line is a symbol of mass production: what impact did this have on warfare?
Classically, leaders have had a profound influence on historical events, although the extent to which they have been the primary factor of change has been challenged by historians in recent decades. Can it be said that Napoleon was the most influential leader of the period 1792-1918? Assess Napoleon’s importance here The American Civil war produced some excellent leaders and others that were poor. What was it that made a few so outstanding? What criteria would you apply?
Who is the general to the left and what were his innovations? To the left is General Falkenhayn, and to the right General Horne (a British general) addressing his men in 1918. Were the generals of the First World War any better or any worse than leaders of previous eras? Explain.
The Quality of Troops The quality of soldiers is dependent on several factors such as motivation, levels of training, discipline and morale. High quality troops might also be defined by their ability to sustain heavy casualties and yet to continue to fight and endure.
To the left is an illustration of the Confederates in Pickett’s charge at Gettysburg in 1863. Although the Americans in the Civil War were not highly trained at first, what assessment can be made of the quality of the men? How can we assess the armies of Napoleon which, after all, were eventually defeated?
Europeans put great store on the personal qualities of soldiers. They believed that these would overcome even changes in technology. What ideas reinforced these views in the late nineteenth century? The First World War revealed the limits of human endurance. Give examples of how the quality of troops could affect the outcomes of the First World War.
Explain Napoleon’s formula for success and label the diagram to the right. The diagram below shows how, in 1862, Robert E. Lee was faced by overwhelming odds. He had to defend the capital Richmond. Against the conventions of war, which stated that forces should not be divided in the face of the enemy, Lee despatched General ‘Stonewall’ Jackson to the north-west to draw away a large portion of Union troops. This demonstrates Lee’s boldness which so often brought him victory. Shenandoah Valley Richmond
Describe the strategy to the right Label the diagram. The diagram to the left illustrates attrition. Why did some generals turn to this destructive strategy? Give examples.
Tactics Tactics are the techniques of fighting on a battlefield. Throughout the period 1792-1918, tactics evolved in response to new and improved weapon design.
What were the advantages and disadvantages of the column attack? A loose skirmish line. How did commanders retain control when formations became more dispersed?
Planning and alliances
From 1792-1918, the Europeans were acute rivals. To improve the chances of success in war, coalitions and alliances wee formed. Diplomacy was used to isolate opponents. Revolutionary and Napoleonic France was unable to overcome the combined might of the other Europeans. In the period 1815-1854, the priority was the containment of France to prevent another Bonaparte dominating Europe. However, Napoleon III did try to resurrect his uncle’s legacy and fought Russia, Austria and Germany between 1854 and 1870 What role did alliances play between 1866 and 1905?
Paris Mobilisation Timetable Europeans developed means for rapid mobilisation to gain for themselves a distinct advantage in any war. They universally hoped for a short, victorious war that would avoid cost and hardship. An increase in tension between the powers, meant that detailed planning and alliances were of critical importance. Explain the German War Plan, and why it was considered necessary to invade a neutral state like Belgium
Organisation of the state for war The apparatus of the state had always included the production of munitions, the pay, equipment and monopoly of control of armies, but industrialisation meant the greater involvement of civilians and private businesses in a far more sophisticated era of warfare.
The organisation of the state meant the raising of armies. How did states balance the need for armies with the costs of maintaining them? What kind of industrial developments meant that civilians would be drawn into the war effort of their country?
The Media and Public Opinion
Napoleon had been careful to groom the media. What was the effect of this? The ruling elites of the nineteenth century were concerned by socialist movements. What means did they employ to neutralise left wing ideas? Troops in barracks The Kaisers Anti-communist poster
What measures were employed to generate support for the war effort in the First World War? List examples of success and failure in these measures.
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