Presentation on theme: "From Bull Run to Antietam The Civil War. Warm Up Historians tend to believe that 5 general theories exist about why the Civil War occurred. In small groups."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up Historians tend to believe that 5 general theories exist about why the Civil War occurred. In small groups of 2-3, use your information sheet to rank them from most convincing (5) to least convincing (1). We will compare results in a few minutes.
Warm Up The 5 theories: Poor political leaders in the 1850s Struggle over slavery Economic & cultural differences between the regions Breakdown of democracy Conflict over the nature of the union
Setting the Scene The 1 st shots fired on Ft. Sumter, South Carolina in April 1861 signaled the start of the nation’s Civil War (the war between the Union states of the North and the Confederate states of the South) Few people imagined that it would be the long, drawn out war it became. Most northerners predicted it would be over in 6 months or less! Most northerners predicted it would be over in 6 months or less!
By May 1861, the Upper South (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee & Arkansas) had joined the Confederacy. Confederate capital moved from Montgomery, AL, to Richmond, VA, just 100 miles from Washington, D.C. Confederate capital moved from Montgomery, AL, to Richmond, VA, just 100 miles from Washington, D.C.
In July 1861, a poorly prepared Union army marched on Richmond, VA. They met Confederate troops in the First Battle of Bull Run. Photograph of the Bull Run battlefield
Due to the Union troops lack of training & talented Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, the Union army was defeated. General “Stonewall” Jackson
NORTH: Strategies Use a naval blockade to prevent the South from trading cotton with Europe Invade the South from the West to cut it in half, divide supplies & troops Gain control of the Mississippi River Capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA SOUTH: Strategies Prepare & wait, hoping the Union would not pursue war (defensive strategy) Wage a war of attrition: continually inflict losses on the North & gradually wear them down Gain the support of European nations (need the South to trade cotton with)
The War in the West General Ulysses S. Grant won important Union victories on the Mississippi River at Forts Henry & Donelson and at the Battle of Shiloh. Battles in the west took place mainly along rivers. General Grant (will eventually become President!)
Grant’s plan was to take control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy into two parts.
The War in the East In the East, a naval battle raged between 2 ironclad warships, the Merrimack and the Monitor.
The War in the East On land, Union forces threatened Richmond, but Confederate General Robert E. Lee was victorious at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Union General McClellan was best known for his was best known for his caution. caution. General Robert E. Lee
In 1862, Lee invaded the North and fought at the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest one-day battle of the war.
Antietam The Union won a narrow victory. However slim, it did deny General Lee a chance to win a battle on Union soil.
After the battle, President Lincoln became dissatisfied with General McClellan’s command because he though McClellan was too slow to take action. The President urged him to attack the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA.
Assignment: Identifying Advantages & Disadvantages Write a 1 to 2 paragraph essay answering the following prompt: Identify and discuss two specific advantages that the North had over the South during the Civil War and two specific advantages that the South had over the North.