2Big Game Hunters25,000 (?) B.C. to 5000 B.C. – Paleo-Indians – the old ones – cultures were spread across the Americas and lasted several thousand years.Burnham Site, Woods County, northwestern Oklahoma – possible evidence (flakes near a bison skull) of people from twenty-eight to thirty-four thousand years ago.
3Big Game HuntersCooperton mammoth kill site in Kiowa County indicate dates from seventeen thousand to twenty-one thousand years ago.Broken bones consistent with human activity, as well as rocks that could have been hammer stones, and an anvil stone were found.
4Clovis People Clovis site in New Mexico. Hunted wild game, collected edible wild plants.Made many types of tools – scrapers, drills, and knives, but best known for their spear points.
5Clovis Spear Points Many clovis points have been found in Oklahoma. The Domebo site in Caddo County yielded many mammoth bones and spear points.Mammoths have been extinct 10,000 years.
6Cooper Bonebed Site Cooper Bonebed in Harlan County, OK. Dates between 10,200 and 10,800 years ago.Residents noted bones sticking out of an eroding bank on the North Canadian River.In 1992, archaeologists began looking at the site, and in 1993 found a Folsom spear point.
7Folsom Spear Points Different shape than the Clovis points. Were made from stone normally found near Austin and Amarillo, Texas, as well as NW Kansas.Suggests mobile groups.
8Cooper BonebedResidents noticed bones sticking out of North Canadian Riverbed.Dates to 10,200 to 10,800 years ago.Archaeologists arrive in 1992, by 1993 find Folsom point fragment.Most startling find was the discovery of a bison skull with a red zigzag painted on it, suggesting clear evidence of ritual (dance and/or song?)
10The Foragers 5000 B.C. to A.D. 1 More in wooded, eastern Oklahoma Used wooden digging sticks with fire-hardened tips.Made baskets, nets, and string from plant fibersDomesticated dogs
11The ForagersUsed axes, hammerstones to shape tools, completed final forms by using sandstone, or sand.The first evidence of the Atlatl, or dart throwers appear in this period.
12Calf Creek CultureBetween seven and four thousand years ago, the state experienced warm conditions and drought.The Calf Creek people adapted to this culture.Hunted bison, small game, gathered edible starchy plants plentiful in drought conditions.
13Calf Creek Culture Spearpoints Knives Scrapers Deep hafting notches Due to drought conditions, limited knowledge exists about these people.
14Early FarmersA.D. 1 to A.D. 1000Sunflowers, native squash and gourds, various weeds with seeds that could be harvested.Grand River in NE OK, Ouachitas in SE OK, Canadian and Washita Rivers in Central, OK, and the Cimarron River in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
15Early FarmersGround corn and other foods in sandstone grinding basins.Pottery starts to come into play.Tools of stone and wood.By A.D. 500, small farming villages exist along the Arkansas, Verdigris, and Grand Rivers.Prairies were unsuitable for farming.
16Early Farmers Selected places where mixed forest and prairie existed. Prairies were mainly for hunting bison, deer, and other game.Early houses included poles driven into the ground for a framework, cane walls, thatched roofs. Circular hearths, and trash pits were common.
17Plains Village Farmers A.D. 800 to A.D. 1400Bows and arrows used widely for gamePopulation expanded due introduction of three sisters from the south:BeansCornSquash
18Plains Village Farmers Food stored in underground cache pits.Farming implements made from buffalo shoulder blades (hoes), and deer jaws (sickles).Cook pots were used that could two or three gallons.Clay figurines.
19Plains Village Farmers Buried their dead in cemeteries near villages. Allowed for study pre-NAGPRA.Men averaged about 5’6” and women averaged about 5’1”.Healthy.Half of all deaths occurred between birth and age four.
20Plains Village Farmers One third of the population lived beyond age 3017 percent reached the age of 50 or 60Major maladies included tooth decay and arthritisBody was usually placed in a curled up position facing east.Prominent people may have been buried with a few items such as pots, or items they used in life.
21Roy Smith SiteFrom 1250 to 1450, people inhabited this site in Beaver County along the Beaver River in the semi-arid high plains region.Walls were built of stone.Cook roomsArticles found that indicated trade with other plains and southwestern people.
22Caddoan Mound Builders A.D to A.D. 1500Spiro is one of the most important Mississippian sites in North America. Located in eastern Oklahoma, the site is characterized by three types of mounds; one burial mound, two temple mounds, and nine house mounds; ceremonial plazas and supporting city environs.
25Early Historic Buffalo Hunters A.D to A.D. 1700After 1500, the climate in western Oklahoma became too dry for farming, and people turned to buffalo as their primary subsistence.People lived in tipis to follow the buffalo.Horses did not reach Oklahoma until around 1700.
26Early Buffalo Hunters Hunted the buffalo on foot Eastern Oklahoma had a wetter climate, which farming easier, butEastern OK farmers would make periodic hunting trips to the west for buffalo, then returned to their villages.Archaeologists have found many buffalo bone tools from this period.
27Formation of Modern Tribes Plains tribes had diversified enough to have different customs, beliefs, and languages.Different tribes communicated with Plains sign language.Plains Apache – Na-I-ShaAncestors of modern Wichita (Ouasitas, Taovayas, Tawakonis, Iscanis)Caddo
28SourcesBrooks, Robert L. and Claudette Marie Gilbert. From Mounds to Mammoths: A Field Guide to Oklahoma Pre-History. 2nd ed. Norman: U of Oklahoma Press, 2000.