Presentation on theme: "Ch. 2Essential Questions. Standards SS8H1 – Evaluate the development of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 2Essential Questions
Standards SS8H1 – Evaluate the development of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on Native American cultures
The 3 Periods of North American History Paleo-Indian Period – 10,000 years ago Archaic Period – 8000 BC – 1000 BC Woodland Period 1000 BC – 1000 AD Mississippian Culture followed the Woodland Period and is considered the highest stage of Native American culture!Mississippian Culture followed the Woodland Period and is considered the highest stage of Native American culture!
Paleo Indian Characteristics Contains the earliest known people of North America. About 10,000 years ago when glaciers from the ice age began to melt Paleo Indians hunted woolly mammoths, bison, horses moose and elk. Nomads – People who move from place to place following food supplies.
Archaic Period Around 8000 BC Earth’s climate warmed up. Big animals disappeared and forests began to grow. Descendants of Paleo-Indians began to thrive: Archaic Indians. Lived in North America from 8000 BC to 1000 BC. 1 st Culture of Georgia
Archaic Period Developed improved techniques for fishing, gathering and hunting They used small spear points, and stone axes. The small tools were used to hunt smaller animals. Smaller animals wouldn’t feed as many people, so they had to get food from somewhere else. They gathered nuts, berries, etc… Other artifacts suggest that these people lived in rock shelters or pit houses. No permanent settlements!
Archaic Period Archaic people DID NOT have three things: bows and arrows, pottery and agriculture.
Woodland Period This period lasted from 1000 B.C. to around 1000 A.D. The Woodland Indians developed agriculture. They also developed pottery, and bow and arrows Woodland Native Americans built villages along streams where the soil was soft. Woodland Indians built protective walls around their villages.
Woodland Indians Advanced villages with houses built in a circle Formed trading networks Formed tribes that fought wars with each other Practiced rituals and ceremonies
Mississippian Culture The period that followed the Woodland Period is known for the Mississippian Culture The Mississippian People originated along the Mississippi and Ohio River, but stretched from Georgia to Minnesota
Achievements of Mississpian – 5 characteristics of Civilization 1.Cities 2.Specialized Jobs 3.Organized Government and religion 4.A system of record keeping 5.Advanced tool Why would all these change the culture and why would they need all these things
Mississippian Culture Etowah Indians lived in North Georgia. Their flat-topped earthen mounds are still there today. Also large ceremonial lodge built of red clay near Macon, Georgia off the Ocmulgee River The Mississippian Peoples grew three main crops: corn, beans and squash.
EtowahEtowah (Mississippian Culture) Etowah Indians lived in North Georgia. Their flat-topped earthen mounds are still there today. Also large ceremonial lodge built of red clay near Macon, Georgia off the Ocmulgee River
5 Civilized Tribes Creek, Cherokee, Seminole, Choctaw and Chickasaw were the “5 Civilized Tribes”. Creek were the dominant tribe in Georgia Cherokee was 2 nd largest in Georgia