2 First New Mexicans Big game Hunters (Clovis and Folsom) Desert Dwellers (Mogollon and Anasazi)
3 Migration12,000 to 8,000 Years ago Nomadic Tribes, following herds of Giant Bison and Mammoth crossed the land bridge from Siberia into North AmericaA Land Bridge was formed when the Ice Age caused the the sea level to drop 300 ft.These nomadic tribes crossed the land bridge and continued to spread throughout North and South America.
4 Clovis and Folsom Cultures Clovis culture is the oldest in New Mexico.Named after a spear point found near Clovis NMLittle is known about Clovis Culture except they were big game hunters who hunted Giant mammoth, Musk Ox, sloth and wide-horned ox.Folsom Culture1908 George McJunkin a cowboy and former slave discovered Bison Bones in a wash after a hard rain near Folsom, NM. In the Bone was a spear point.1928 Archeologists begin to dig the site. They found more bones and more spear pointsUsing carbon-14 dating scientist have determined that both cultures lived around 10,000 BC
6 Big Game Hunters Out, Desert Dwellers In Big Game Hunters continued to live in NM until the Big game was gone.The end of the Ice Age change NM Climate from a grassland to desert.Hunters moved on to the Great Plains to continue their nomadic ways hunting smaller game like buffalo.Desert DwellersPeople who stayed behind moved into western NM.3 Stages of development
7 1st Stage Desert Dwellers 8,000 to 5,000 years agoHunted deer, antelope, rodents; fished and gathered seeds, nuts and berries.
8 2nd Stage Desert Dwellers 5,000 to 2,000 Years ago.Incorporated farming into life style after noticing that seeds left behind in a certain place had grown into plants the following year.Continued to move around but intentionally left seed behind so ther would be food when they came back the next Year
9 Basket and Milling Stone Desert Dwellers used baskets to gather, store, and even cook foodMilling Stones were used to grind seeds into flour.
11 MogollonAs early as 3,000 BC ancestors of the Mogollon began growing corn.By 300 BC mogollon became true farmers growing corn, squash, and beans.The culture reached its peak about AD 500.
12 Anasazi “The Ancient Ones” or “enemies of our ancestors” Developed more slowly than Mogollon.
13 Early Anasazi AD 1 - 500 Basketmakers (no pottery) Used Atlatl (for Hunting)Domesticated Dogs
14 Modified Basketmaker Anasazi ADBegan Farming corn, squash, and beans.Lived in Pit housesPotteryBow and Arrow
15 Anasazi Pueblo Culture ADBegin to build rows of adobe houses above ground sometimes in the shape of an L or UAt the center was a Kiva or religious center.Matrilineal CulturePolish skills in pottery making.Weaving cotton to make summer clothingCradle boards = flat head. Within a few generations the physical appearance of Anasazi changed as a result of the cradle board.
16 The Golden Age of the Anasazi ADBecame the dominant culture of the area.Used stone masonry to build multistoried Buildings.Cliff DwellingsComplex water control systems and roads