Presentation on theme: "The first inhabitants of Georgia"— Presentation transcript:
1The first inhabitants of Georgia Prehistoric GeorgiaThe first inhabitants of Georgia
2What Is History?History relates to events that have occurred in the past and are important.In order to study history, you need to use Primary Sources – firsthand accounts of a historical event, which are in writing.
3Examples of a Primary Source Some examples of a primary source are newspapers, diaries/journals, autobiographies, and government reports.
4What is PrehistoryPrehistory refers to the period of time before written records were kept.Means before history beganNo written records were kept during prehistoric times.
5How can we study prehistory? We study prehistory with the use of artifacts and ecofacts.Artifacts are objects made by humans (arrowheads, tools, pottery).Ecofacts are natural objects relating to living matter (bones, teeth, skulls, shells).
6Who Studies Prehistory? Archeologists study prehistory.An archeologist learns about previous societies by studying the artifacts and ecofacts left behind by that society.
7The First AmericansHuman beings originated on the Continent of Africa around five million years ago.In order to survive, they had to hunt and gather all of their food.
8The First Americans Cont. 12,000 years ago the first humans reached North America.A band of humans crossed an ice bridge called Beringia.The bridge connected Siberia and Alaska.1,300 miles wide and four times the length of Georgia
9Picture of Early Humans Crossing Beringia Was this trip planned, and do you think that they had directions to N. America?
10Prehistoric Native Americans Who were they?When did they arrive?Where was their original home?Why did they come?What did they eat?What kind of animals did they find here?Where did they live?
12Understanding through Artifacts Oral Tradition: Elders repeated the narrative of events often until younger generations had memorized themArcheologists dig into earth to find artifacts (items made by people) that tell us about early inhabitantsShale: layered rock that can encase animals or birds
13Understanding through Culture Anthropologists use artifacts, cave drawings, well-traveled pathways, and oral history to study a group’s cultureCulture: shared beliefs, traditions, music, art, and social institutions of a group of people
14Who, When, and How? Migration unplanned Nomads wandered looking for foodas they traveled, others followedClimate warmer, more foodFound woolly mammoths, mastodons, ground sloths, etc.All Native Americans descended from these Nomads
15Who, When, and How?By 10,000 B.C. humans had arrived in what is now the Southeastern United StatesThe following 11,700 years of history are divided into four traditions:PaleoArchaicWoodlandMississippian
16Paleo-Indian Period Before 10,000 years ago “Paleo” means “very old”Also called Old Stone AgeMainly ate large animals such as mammoths, bison, mastodons, & ground sloths
17Paleo Indians Nomadic (roaming) hunters Most tools and spear points made of stoneUsed “atlatl”: stone, sling-like implement that threw darts from a longer distance
19Paleo-Indian PeriodEarly Indians never stayed in one place for long – no evidence of fixed shelterCamped in the openSometimes dug pits or built shelters to protect against weatherFollowed herds of large animals
20Archaic Period 8000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. Archaic means “old” Three time spansEarly (8000 B.C B.C.)Middle (began around 5000 B.C.)Late (4000 B.C B.C.)Crude shelters; stayed in one place longer
21Archaic Hunted large animals and small game Invented tools from deer antlersMoved with each season to find best food resourcesWater levels moved back along rivers & coastal areasPeople began making hooks from animal bonesShellfish became a more common foodFood became easier to find and there was less movement
22Archaic Created grooved axes to clear trees and bushes Began saving and planting seeds for planting (horticulture)Made and used pottery for cooking and storing food
23Woodland Period 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1000 Tribe: group of people sharing common ancestry, name, and way of livingHundreds of families formed tribesBuilt domed-shaped huts with treesUsed bow and arrows to huntHeld religious ceremonies
24Woodland Period Improved pottery making techniques Ate small game, fish, nuts, and berriesAlso planted crops such as squash & sunflowers
25Mississippian Period 700 A.D. to 1600 A.D. Also called the Temple Mound PeriodFarmed with homemade tools and grew most of their own foodCrops (maize, beans, pumpkins, squash)Thousands lived in single settlement, protected by fences and moatsVery religious; used jewelry and body art
26Mississippian PeriodAncient middens (garbage piles) show what people ate, how they used fire, what they used for cookingOcmulgee National Monument near Macon reveals a large ceremonial area with benches and platformsSimilar tools as Woodland period: stone hoes, copper headdresses
27Mississippian Period Kolomoki Mounds Rock Eagle Mounds Blakely County Near Social Circle