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The Earliest People Chapter 2. Prehistory Time before written records So how do we know what happened? – Archaeologists and Anthropologists – Artifacts,

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Presentation on theme: "The Earliest People Chapter 2. Prehistory Time before written records So how do we know what happened? – Archaeologists and Anthropologists – Artifacts,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Earliest People Chapter 2

2 Prehistory Time before written records So how do we know what happened? – Archaeologists and Anthropologists – Artifacts, petroglyphs, fossils, carbon dating, DNA studies, fluorine dating, dendrochronology

3 Paleolithic Era = Old Stone Age – Hunting and gathering/foraging Neolithic Era = New Stone Age – Agricultural Revolution, farming

4 Paleo-Indians 30,000-15,000 B.C. The first humans came to North America from Asia. During Ice Age, they walked across Beringia, a land bridge. From Beringia, they moved southward. After Ice Age, water flooded Beringia creating the Bering Strait.

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6 Big-Game Hunters 25,000-5,000 B.C. Reached OK as early as 11,000 years ago. The Clovis people, named after the New Mexico site where first artifacts were reported, were known for their spears Domebo Site (Caddo County)=mammoth with Clovis Points (spearheads usually 3- 4 inches long)

7 Big-Game Hunters Folsom Point is almost as old, smaller with a finer point The Folsom people sites include the Cooper Bonebed (Harper County) and the Waugh site as evidenced by various spear points and a painted bison skull. Nomadic Paleo-Indians also ate seeds, nuts, and roasted meat; had fire

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9 Foragers 5000 B.C.-A.D.1 Still hunted, but did not follow migrating animals In fall and winter, lived in caves Killed smaller animals=better hunters (atlatl) Gathered food also Petroglyphs

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11 Woodland Culture The first farms were in the Grand River area, the Ouachita Mountains, the Cimarron River area, and along the Canadian and Washita Rivers. Bow and arrow were developed about this time and made hunting easier. Because farming meant growing crops, people moved less and villages began to develop.

12 Early Farmers/Woodland Culture A.D Grew maize (corn), beans, pumpkins, sunflower, and squash Pottery Had to be near rivers and creeks. The first farms were in the Grand River area, the Ouachita Mountains, the Cimarron River area, and along the Canadian and Washita Rivers. Bow and arrow were developed about this time and made hunting easier. Because farming meant growing crops, people moved less and villages began to develop.

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14 Plains Village Farmers A.D Traders Skilled farmers More effective hunters due to bow and arrow Bison most important game Lived in square or rectangular houses Celebrated and thought about mysteries and meaning of life Drier climate caused crop failure ending their way of life

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16 Caddoan Mound Builders A.D Made huge earthen mounds that were foundations of temples, public buildings, homes of chiefs, or burial sites for the wealthy Spiro=11 mounds on Arkansas River (LeFlore County) Purpose?? Traders-from north to gulf Artisans-copper, shell, turquoise—made cloth Chiefdom Religious, life after death—burial sites Drought too ended their society

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