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Ideas and Strategies that Support Differentiated Instruction

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1 Ideas and Strategies that Support Differentiated Instruction
Marcia B. Imbeau Associate Professor University of Arkansas

2 Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs
Guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasks Flexible grouping Continual assessment Teachers can differentiate through Building Community Quality Curriculum Content Product Affect/Environment Process According to students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Cubing…Tic-Tac-Toe…Learning Contracts….Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies…Intelligence Preferences..Orbitals..Complex Instruction…4MAT…WebQuests & Web Inquiry…ETC.

3 Let's Take Look at Some Examples
What have you tried? What worked and what didn’t? Working in your small groups, take a minute and share your efforts. This isn’t meant to be a contest but the only way to get very good at something is to practice so….please share what you have been able to do up to this point and thank you for helping us all to learn! To do this task make a chart recording what you have been able to do thus far. Put your name, subject & grade, what you tried, how it worked, and any questions or concerns that you have.

4 Differentiation is responsive teaching rather than one-size-fits-all teaching.

5 “It means teachers proactively plan varied approaches to what students need to learn, how they will learn it, and/or how they will show what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood that each student will learn as much as he or she can, as efficiently as possible.”

6 What is differentiation?
Differentiation is classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning. -Tomlinson (2001) Show overhead 7-if time

7 “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.” Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning Lorna M. Earl Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp

8 “It’s a way of thinking about the classroom with the goals of honoring each student’s learning needs and maximizing each student’s learning capacity while developing a solid community of learners.”

9 Differentiation doesn’t suggest that a teacher can be all things to all individuals all the time. It does, however, mandate that a teacher create a reasonable range of approaches to learning much of the time, so that most students find learning a fit much of the time.

10 Differentiation as “Universal Design”
At the beginning of the planning process, the teacher asks, “What supports and adaptations should I build into the lesson to address learning needs of particular students that will likely help others as well?”

11 differentiating instruction means “shaking up” what
At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means “shaking up” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.

12 Not just inclusion, but inclusive teaching.
It’s teaching so that “typical” students; students with disabilities; students who are gifted; and students from a range of cultural, ethnic, and language groups can learn together, well. Not just inclusion, but inclusive teaching. Based on Peterson, J., & Hitte, M. (2003). Inclusive teaching: Creating effective schools for all learners. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p. xix.

13 Differentiation begins with the teacher’s mindset that students
of any age need active involvement with and support from adults who care to help them construct a worthy life.

14 Think about it…….. How do these definitions & ideas mesh with yours?
What else would you add to the definitions and ideas as a result of your evolving understandings? Which ideas seem to you to be “just a part of good teaching”?

15 Responding to Readiness, Interest, Learning Profile Big Idea
of Differentiation: Responding to Readiness, Interest, Learning Profile

16 Student Traits There are four student traits that teachers must often address to ensure effective and efficient learning. Those are readiness, interest, learning profile, and affect.

17 Student Traits Tomlinson, 2003
Readiness refers to a student’s knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a student works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student does learning take place. Tomlinson, 2003

18 Student Traits Tomlinson, 2003
Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus, highly effective teachers attend both to developing interests and as yet undiscovered interests in their students. Tomlinson, 2003

19 Student Traits Tomlinson, 2003
Learning profile refers to how students learn best. Those include learning style, intelligence preference, culture and gender. If classrooms can offer and support different modes of learning, it is likely that more students will learn effectively and efficiently. Tomlinson, 2003

20 Student Traits Tomlinson, 2003
Affect has to do with how students feel about themselves, their work, and the classroom as a whole. Student affect is the gateway to helping each student become more fully engaged and successful in learning. Tomlinson, 2003

21 High Quality Teaching…
Who we teach How we teach Where we teach What we teach It’s About Having All the Parts in Place… Tomlinson ‘01

22 Unlocking the Meaning of Differentiation
Affirmation Contribution Power Purpose Challenge The Student Seeks Curriculum and Instruction are the Vehicle Important Focused Engaging Demanding Scaffolded The Teacher Responds Invitation Opportunity Investment Persistence Reflection Carol Tomlinson, 2002

23 First Step in Designing Differentiated Curriculum is…
…FOCUS! Learning Goals: Knows, Understands, Be able to Dos

24 Concept-Based Teaching
“A concept serves as an integrating lens” and encourages the transfer of ideas within and across the disciplines “as students search for patterns and connections in the creation of new knowledge.”1 Examples: Change, Culture, Systems, Interdependence, Organization 1 Lynn Erickson – Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction, 2002

25 Concept Understandings = Principles "Knows" = Facts "Be able to Dos" =
Skills

26 Understandings: These are the conceptual objectives you have for your students. They are statements that… …Represent big ideas that have enduring value beyond the classroom. …Reside at the heart of the discipline and are worthy of exploration …Require “uncoverage” rather than coverage (of abstract or often misunderstood ideas) …Offer potential for engaging students 2 Wiggins and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998

27 Understandings Examples: Students will understand that…
Social studies: …all cultures have beliefs, roles, traditions, economies, and technologies. …a people changes and is changed by its culture.* Science: … an ecosystem is comprised of interdependent parts.* …change to one part of an ecosystem results in change in its other parts.* English …each of a system’s (story’s) elements exists in an interdependent relationship with the other elements. …changing even one element will alter the story’s organization and outcome in some way.* *=Generalizations: Understandings that show the relationship between two or more concepts 2 Wiggins and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998

28 Definitions of setting, plot, point of view, conflict...
Interdependence Understanding: Change to one element of a story will result in change to the other elements. Facts: Definitions of setting, plot, point of view, conflict... Skills: Analyze the impact of historical perspective on a piece of writing. Determine the effects of a story’s point of view. Activities: Write a modern-day version of a legend or myth. Rewrite a fairy tale from the perspective of a different character.

29 Reminder… Knows – Facts, names, dates, places, information The original inhabitants of the Americas migrated from Asia into North America over the Bering land bridge. The multiplication tables Understands -- Essential truths that give meaning to the topic; Ideas that transfer across situations; can be phrased, “Students should understand THAT…” Migration enables organisms to meet basic needs. Multiplication is another way to do addition. Dos -- Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of independence, social skills, skills of production); usually verb phrases. Trace and explain the migratory path of the original Americans Use multiplication to solve story problems Work collaboratively in a group to complete an assigned task.

30 Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos? Based on NC’s EOG’s
ENGLISH An author’s voice reflects his/her perspective. Point of view refers to the authors choice of narrator for his/her story. Project the student’s voice into his/her work through reflective interpretation of prior events MATH Apply geometric properties and relationships, including the Pythagorean theorem. The formula for the area of a triangle is (½)bh. The dimensions of a figure exist in an interdependent relationship with the figure’s perimeter, area, and volume. Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understands.

31 Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos? Based on Virginia’s SOLs
SCIENCE Design an experiment in which one variable is manipulated over many trials. An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis. The accuracy of evidence determines the reliability of conclusions. HISTORY Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation. Exploration and colonization result in the redistribution of population. The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity. Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understands.

32 Literature Example Know: Definition of Point-of-view
Concept: Perspective Lesson Topic: Point of View in To Kill a Mockingbird Know: Definition of Point-of-view Understand: Truth can look different from different perspectives. Do: Rewrite a scene from a perspective other than the narrator’s.

33 Secondary Science Example
Concept: Perspective Lesson Topic: History of Science Know: Theory (def.), evidence (def.), steps of the scientific method Understand: Our perspective of the world changes as our knowledge advances. Do: Explain how a theory has changed over time due to the acquisition of new evidence Explain how technology influences the ability of scientists to collect evidence and use it to shape perspectives of how the world works.

34 Elementary Social Studies Example
Concept: Culture Lesson Topic: Country Study Know: Foods, celebrations, clothing, and jobs representative of specified countries Understand: Every culture has its own unique beliefs, traditions, and behaviors. Do: Compare and contrast the foods, clothing, jobs, and celebrations of different countries. Recognize similarities and differences among people of different cultures.

35 English/Social Studies Example
Concept: Perspective Lesson Topic: Consumerism Know: Definition of point of view Point of view is used as a tool in advertising Understand: Perspective influences decision making. Do: Explain and analyze advertising Use point of view strategically in creating an ad Critique other ads’ use of point of view to achieve purpose/influence decision making.

36 Writing Example Concept: Perspective Lesson Topic: Writer’s Voice
Know: Definition of voice Techniques used to communicate voice Understand: A clear writer’s voice communicates the writer’s perspective Do: Identify and describe writers’ voices in literature Hypothesize/explain the relationship between writers’ perspectives and their voices Develop writer’s voice in order to communicate one’s perspective

37 Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity About What Students Should …
KNOW Facts Vocabulary Definitions UNDERSTAND Principles/ generalizations Big ideas of the discipline BE ABLE TO DO Processes Skills

38 KNOW Facts, names, dates, places, information
There are 50 states in the US Thomas Jefferson 1492 The Continental Divide The multiplication tables

39 UNDERSTAND Essential truths that give meaning to the topic
Stated as a full sentence Begin with, “I want students to understand THAT…” (not HOW… or WHY… or WHAT) Multiplication is another way to do addition. People migrate to meet basic needs. All cultures contain the same elements. Entropy and enthalpy are competing forces in the natural world. Voice reflects the author.

40 Understanding Understanding is more a matter of what people can DO than something they HAVE. Understanding involves action more than possession. D.N. Perkins, Educational Leadership, 10/91

41 BE ABLE TO DO Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of independence, social skills, skills of production) Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity) Analyze Solve a problem to find perimeter Write a well supported argument Evaluate work according to specific criteria Contribute to the success of a group or team Use graphics to represent data appropriately

42 “There is no such thing as genuine knowledge and fruitful understanding except as the offspring of doing… This is the lesson which all education has to learn.” --John Dewey

43 Knowledge/Understanding/Skill
Study the following items. Talk with your partners and determine if each of the items represents something that would go in the knowledge, the understanding, or the skill column of curriculum planning. The physical geography of a region directly impacts the development of the civilization that settles in that particular region. Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492. Locate places on a map using a geographic grid including latitude and longitude. Fair play is an essential part of all sports. The United States of America is divided into specific regions, each of which has unique geographic features and natural resources. Scientists record the results of their experiments in a careful and detailed manner. Count to one hundred in units of ten. Analyze the causes of the American Revolution. Describe the rising action in a dramatic story. Writers use a variety of literary elements to inform, persuade, describe, and entertain readers. Write descriptive text that describes people, places, and events. Good writers use the skills of logical organization and strong voice to convey a message to the reader. You can find the decimal for 3/8 by using equivalent fractions.

44 KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)
ecosystem, elements of culture (housing/shelter, customs, values, geography) UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth or insight - want students to understand that . . .) DO (basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the discipline, planning skills---verbs) Compare and contrast Draw conclusions Work collaboratively Develop a timeline Use maps as data Compare and contrast Write a unified paragraph Examine varied perspectives Tomlinson • 02

45 Movie Time…. In Rick’s Classroom, Look For:
The nature of the learning environment Connections between teacher and students Quality of curriculum The nature and uses of assessment Your own questions

46 Why Do You Assess? With your group, take 5 discuss the reasons you assess students.

47 LEARNING GRADES ONGOING ASSESSMENT Some teachers Some teachers
talk about--- LEARNING Some teachers talk about--- GRADES VS. Can these two coexist peacefully? Should one receive emphasis over the other?

48 “Assessment is today’s means of
understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.” Carol Tomlinson

49 How Do You Assess? Take a moment to list some ways you typically assess students in your classroom.

50 WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? READINESS LEARNING PROFILE INTEREST Content
Areas of Strength and Weakness Work Preferences Self Awareness Interest Surveys Interest Centers Self-Selection Content Knowledge Skills Concepts

51 “Assessment should always have
more to do with helping students grow than with cataloging their mistakes.” Carol Tomlinson

52 When Do You Assess? Most teachers assess students at the
end of an instructional unit or sequence. When assessment and instruction are interwoven, both the students and the teacher benefit. The next slide suggests a diagnostic continuum for ongoing assessment.

53 On-going Assessment: A Diagnostic Continuum
Preassessment (Finding Out) Formative Assessment (Keeping Track & Checking -up) Summative Assessment (Making sure)

54 On-going Assessment: A Diagnostic Continuum
Feedback and Goal Setting Preassessment (Finding Out) Formative Assessment (Keeping Track & Checking -up) Summative Assessment (Making sure) Pre-test Graphing for Greatness Inventory KWL Checklist Observation Self-evaluation Questioning Conference Exit Card Peer evaluation Portfolio Check 3-minute pause Quiz Observation Journal Entry Talkaround Self-evaluation Questioning Unit Test Performance Task Product/Exhibit Demonstration Portfolio Review

55 Preassessment Is... Any method, strategy or process used to determine a student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to plan for appropriate instruction. provides data to determine options for students helps determine differences before planning helps teacher design activities that are respectful and challenging allows teachers to meet students where they are identifies starting point for instruction identifies learning gaps makes efficient use of instructional time

56 Formative Assessment Is...
A process of accumulating information about a student’s progress to help make instructional decisions that will improve his/her understandings and achievement levels. Depicts student’s life as a learner used to make instructional adjustments alerts the teacher about student misconceptions “early warning signal” allows students to build on previous experiences provides regular feedback provides evidence of progress aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes

57 Summative Assessment Is...
A means to determine a student’s mastery and understanding of information, skills, concepts, or processes. Should reflect formative assessments that precede it should match material taught may determine student’s exit achievement may be tied to a final decision, grade or report should align with instructional/curricular outcomes may be a form of alternative assessment

58 Two Views of Assessment
Assessment is For: Gate Keeping Judging Right Answers Control Comparison to Others Use with Single Activities Assessment is For: Nurturing Guiding Self Reflection Information Comparison to Task Use Over Multiple Activities Tomlinson

59 What Do You Want to Learn About Rome?
Name: _______________________ These are some of the topics we will be studying in our unit on Ancient Rome. We want to know what you want to learn about. Number your choices from 1 to 8. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 8 is your least favorite. ____ geography ____ government (laws) ____ agriculture (foods they grew) ____ architecture (buildings) ____ music and art ____ religion and sports ____ roles of men, women, and children What Can You Tell Us About Rome? 1. What country is Rome in? ________________________________________________ 2. What does the word civilization mean?_______________________________________ _________________________________________________________________. 3. Can you give us some examples of different civilizations? ________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 4. Can you name any famous Roman people? ___________________________________ 5. Many things in our country and culture came from the Romans. Can you think of any? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________.

60 How Do You Like to Learn? 1. I study best when it is quiet. Yes No
2. I am able to ignore the noise of other people talking while I am working. Yes No 3. I like to work at a table or desk. Yes No 4. I like to work on the floor. Yes No 5. I work hard by myself. Yes No 6. I work hard for my parents or teacher. Yes No 7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no matter what. Yes No 8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work and do not finish it. Yes No 9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to have exact steps on how to complete it. Yes No 10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to create my own steps on how to complete it. Yes No 11. I like to work by myself. Yes No 12. I like to work in pairs or in groups. Yes No 13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No 14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on 15. I like to learn by moving and doing. Yes No 16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk. Yes No

61 Poetry Poll Have you ever studied poetry? If you answer yes to question 1, answer question 2 and 3. When did you study poetry? Did you enjoy the poetry unit or writing poetry in general? Why or why not? Have you ever written a poem you were proud of? Which do you like better? _____poetry that has a rhyme scheme _____free verse poetry Rate the following items in order of personal enjoyment using 1-3 _____writing original poetry _____reading poetry aloud to others _____reading and listening to poetry In your opinion, what is the most difficult part of writing a poem? Circle one. Following a given pattern Coming up with at topic of the poem Making sense Coming up other___________________________ What is your favorite poem? Who is your favorite poet? On a scale from 1-10, 10 being the most, how well do you think you will do during this unit? Circle the kinds of poems you are already familiar with: Acrostic, haiku, cinquain, limerick, free verse, couplet, other________ On the back, list some activities you would like to do in this unit. -Kristie Sumpter, English

62 Pre-Assessment What the student already knows about
what is being planned What standards, objectives, concepts & skills the individual student understands What further instruction and opportunities for mastery are needed What requires reteaching or enhancement What areas of interests and feelings are in the different areas of the study How to set up flexible groups: Whole, individual, partner, or small group Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

63 Squaring Off Whole Group Assessment
1. Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the following words or phrases that are effective ways to group according to learner knowledge. Rarely ever Sometimes Often I have it! Dirt road Paved road Highway Yellow brick road Tell the students to go to the corner of the room that matches their place in the learning journey. Participants go to the corner that most closely matches their own learning status and discuss what they know about the topic and why they chose to go there. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

64 Yes/No Cards YES NO Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on one side and NO on the other. When a question is asked the students hold up YES or NO. Ask the students if they know the following vocabulary words and what they mean. Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES they may be called on to give the correct answer. Remind them that if they don’t know the words it is OK because they will be learning them. You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas, etc. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

65 Thumb It! Up Sideways Down
Have students respond with the position of their thumb to get an assessment of what their current understanding of a topic being studied. Where I am now in my understanding of ______? Up Sideways Down I know a lot I know some I know very little Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

66 Fist of Five Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1 being lowest and 5 the highest. Ask, How well do you feel you know this information? I know it so well I could explain it to anyone. I can do it alone. I need some help. I could use more practice. 1. I am only beginning. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

67 Designing a Pre-Assessment..
How do we assess the gap between what we know about students and what performance is expected of them for the final assessment of the next unit? And how should a teacher decide on a method of pre-assessment? Gregory, G.H. and Kuzmich, L. (2004). Data driven differentiation in the standards-based classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

68 Three Questions that Help....
What do I know about my students now? What is the nature and content of the final assessment for this unit or period of time? What don’t I know about the content knowledge, the critical thinking, and the process or skill demonstration of my students? Gregory, G.H. and Kuzmich, L. (2004). Data driven differentiation in the standards-based classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

69 Efficient Methods of Recording or Noting
this Information Take notes Have students complete a quick assignment Have students do a checklist with each other Use a ticket out Create a homework activity that helps gather data Gregory, G.H. and Kuzmich, L. (2004). Data driven differentiation in the standards-based classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

70 Let's Take Look at Some Examples
Teacher prepared pretests KWL charts and other graphic organizers Writing prompts/samples Questioning Guess Box Picture Interpretation Prediction Teacher observation/checklists Student demonstrations and discussions Initiating activities Informational surveys/Questionnaires/Inventories Student interviews Student products and work samples Self-evaluations Portfolio analysis Game activities Show of hands to determine understanding Drawing related to topic or content Standardized test information Anticipation journals

71 Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs
Guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasks Flexible grouping Continual assessment Teachers can differentiate through Building Community Quality Curriculum Content Product Affect/Environment Process According to students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Cubing…Tic-Tac-Toe…Learning Contracts….Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies…Intelligence Preferences..Orbitals..Complex Instruction…4MAT…WebQuests & Web Inquiry…ETC.

72 “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.” Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning Lorna M. Earl Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp

73 Differentiation begins with the teacher’s mindset that students
of any age need active involvement with and support from adults who care to help them construct a worthy life.

74 Think about it…….. How do these definitions & ideas mesh with yours?
What else would you add to the definitions and ideas as a result of your evolving understandings? Which ideas seem to you to be “just a part of good teaching”?

75 Responding to Readiness, Interest, Learning Profile Big Idea
of Differentiation: Responding to Readiness, Interest, Learning Profile

76 Student Traits There are four student traits that teachers must often address to ensure effective and efficient learning. Those are readiness, interest, learning profile, and affect.

77 Student Traits Tomlinson, 2003
Readiness refers to a student’s knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a student works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student does learning take place. Tomlinson, 2003

78 Student Traits Tomlinson, 2003
Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus, highly effective teachers attend both to developing interests and as yet undiscovered interests in their students. Tomlinson, 2003

79 Student Traits Tomlinson, 2003
Learning profile refers to how students learn best. Those include learning style, intelligence preference, culture and gender. If classrooms can offer and support different modes of learning, it is likely that more students will learn effectively and efficiently. Tomlinson, 2003

80 Student Traits Tomlinson, 2003
Affect has to do with how students feel about themselves, their work, and the classroom as a whole. Student affect is the gateway to helping each student become more fully engaged and successful in learning. Tomlinson, 2003

81 High Quality Teaching…
Who we teach How we teach Where we teach What we teach It’s About Having All the Parts in Place… Tomlinson ‘01

82 Unlocking the Meaning of Differentiation
Affirmation Contribution Power Purpose Challenge The Student Seeks Curriculum and Instruction are the Vehicle Important Focused Engaging Demanding Scaffolded The Teacher Responds Invitation Opportunity Investment Persistence Reflection Carol Tomlinson, 2002

83 First Step in Designing Differentiated Curriculum is…
…FOCUS! Learning Goals: Knows, Understands, Be able to Dos

84 Concept-Based Teaching
“A concept serves as an integrating lens” and encourages the transfer of ideas within and across the disciplines “as students search for patterns and connections in the creation of new knowledge.”1 Examples: Change, Culture, Systems, Interdependence, Organization 1 Lynn Erickson – Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction, 2002

85 Concept Understandings = Principles "Knows" = Facts "Be able to Dos" =
Skills

86 Understandings: These are the conceptual objectives you have for your students. They are statements that… …Represent big ideas that have enduring value beyond the classroom. …Reside at the heart of the discipline and are worthy of exploration …Require “uncoverage” rather than coverage (of abstract or often misunderstood ideas) …Offer potential for engaging students 2 Wiggins and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998

87 Understandings Examples: Students will understand that…
Social studies: …all cultures have beliefs, roles, traditions, economies, and technologies. …a people changes and is changed by its culture.* Science: … an ecosystem is comprised of interdependent parts.* …change to one part of an ecosystem results in change in its other parts.* English …each of a system’s (story’s) elements exists in an interdependent relationship with the other elements. …changing even one element will alter the story’s organization and outcome in some way.* *=Generalizations: Understandings that show the relationship between two or more concepts 2 Wiggins and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998

88 Definitions of setting, plot, point of view, conflict...
Interdependence Understanding: Change to one element of a story will result in change to the other elements. Facts: Definitions of setting, plot, point of view, conflict... Skills: Analyze the impact of historical perspective on a piece of writing. Determine the effects of a story’s point of view. Activities: Write a modern-day version of a legend or myth. Rewrite a fairy tale from the perspective of a different character.

89 Reminder… Knows – Facts, names, dates, places, information The original inhabitants of the Americas migrated from Asia into North America over the Bering land bridge. The multiplication tables Understands -- Essential truths that give meaning to the topic; Ideas that transfer across situations; can be phrased, “Students should understand THAT…” Migration enables organisms to meet basic needs. Multiplication is another way to do addition. Dos -- Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of independence, social skills, skills of production); usually verb phrases. Trace and explain the migratory path of the original Americans Use multiplication to solve story problems Work collaboratively in a group to complete an assigned task.

90 Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos? Based on NC’s EOG’s
ENGLISH An author’s voice reflects his/her perspective. Point of view refers to the authors choice of narrator for his/her story. Project the student’s voice into his/her work through reflective interpretation of prior events MATH Apply geometric properties and relationships, including the Pythagorean theorem. The formula for the area of a triangle is (½)bh. The dimensions of a figure exist in an interdependent relationship with the figure’s perimeter, area, and volume. Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understands.

91 Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos? Based on Virginia’s SOLs
SCIENCE Design an experiment in which one variable is manipulated over many trials. An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis. The accuracy of evidence determines the reliability of conclusions. HISTORY Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation. Exploration and colonization result in the redistribution of population. The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity. Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understands.

92 Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos? Based on NC’s EOG’s
ENGLISH An author’s voice reflects his/her perspective. (UNDERSTAND) Point of view refers to the authors choice of narrator for his/her story. (KNOW) Project the student’s voice into his/her work through reflective interpretation of prior events. (DO) MATH Apply geometric properties and relationships, including the Pythagorean theorem. (DO) The formula for the area of a triangle is (½)bh. (KNOW) The dimensions of a figure exist in an interdependent relationship with the figure’s perimeter, area, and volume. (UNDERSTAND)

93 Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos? Based on Virginia’s SOLs
SCIENCE Design an experiment in which one variable is manipulated over many trials. (DO) An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis. (KNOW) The accuracy of evidence determines the reliability of conclusions. (UNDERSTAND) HISTORY Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation. (DO) Exploration and colonization result in the redistribution of population. (UNDERSTAND) The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity. (KNOW)

94 Literature Example Know: Definition of Point-of-view
Concept: Perspective Lesson Topic: Point of View in To Kill a Mockingbird Know: Definition of Point-of-view Understand: Truth can look different from different perspectives. Do: Rewrite a scene from a perspective other than the narrator’s.

95 Secondary Science Example
Concept: Perspective Lesson Topic: History of Science Know: Theory (def.), evidence (def.), steps of the scientific method Understand: Our perspective of the world changes as our knowledge advances. Do: Explain how a theory has changed over time due to the acquisition of new evidence Explain how technology influences the ability of scientists to collect evidence and use it to shape perspectives of how the world works.

96 Elementary Social Studies Example
Concept: Culture Lesson Topic: Country Study Know: Foods, celebrations, clothing, and jobs representative of specified countries Understand: Every culture has its own unique beliefs, traditions, and behaviors. Do: Compare and contrast the foods, clothing, jobs, and celebrations of different countries. Recognize similarities and differences among people of different cultures.

97 English/Social Studies Example
Concept: Perspective Lesson Topic: Consumerism Know: Definition of point of view Point of view is used as a tool in advertising Understand: Perspective influences decision making. Do: Explain and analyze advertising Use point of view strategically in creating an ad Critique other ads’ use of point of view to achieve purpose/influence decision making.

98 Writing Example Concept: Perspective Lesson Topic: Writer’s Voice
Know: Definition of voice Techniques used to communicate voice Understand: A clear writer’s voice communicates the writer’s perspective Do: Identify and describe writers’ voices in literature Hypothesize/explain the relationship between writers’ perspectives and their voices Develop writer’s voice in order to communicate one’s perspective

99 Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity About What Students Should …
KNOW Facts Vocabulary Definitions UNDERSTAND Principles/ generalizations Big ideas of the discipline BE ABLE TO DO Processes Skills

100 KNOW Facts, names, dates, places, information
There are 50 states in the US Thomas Jefferson 1492 The Continental Divide The multiplication tables

101 UNDERSTAND Essential truths that give meaning to the topic
Stated as a full sentence Begin with, “I want students to understand THAT…” (not HOW… or WHY… or WHAT) Multiplication is another way to do addition. People migrate to meet basic needs. All cultures contain the same elements. Entropy and enthalpy are competing forces in the natural world. Voice reflects the author.

102 Understanding Understanding is more a matter of what people can DO than something they HAVE. Understanding involves action more than possession. D.N. Perkins, Educational Leadership, 10/91

103 BE ABLE TO DO Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of independence, social skills, skills of production) Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity) Analyze Solve a problem to find perimeter Write a well supported argument Evaluate work according to specific criteria Contribute to the success of a group or team Use graphics to represent data appropriately

104 “There is no such thing as genuine knowledge and fruitful understanding except as the offspring of doing… This is the lesson which all education has to learn.” --John Dewey

105 Knowledge/Understanding/Skill
Study the following items. Talk with your partners and determine if each of the items represents something that would go in the knowledge, the understanding, or the skill column of curriculum planning. The physical geography of a region directly impacts the development of the civilization that settles in that particular region. Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492. Locate places on a map using a geographic grid including latitude and longitude. Fair play is an essential part of all sports. The United States of America is divided into specific regions, each of which has unique geographic features and natural resources. Scientists record the results of their experiments in a careful and detailed manner. Count to one hundred in units of ten. Analyze the causes of the American Revolution. Describe the rising action in a dramatic story. Writers use a variety of literary elements to inform, persuade, describe, and entertain readers. Write descriptive text that describes people, places, and events. Good writers use the skills of logical organization and strong voice to convey a message to the reader. You can find the decimal for 3/8 by using equivalent fractions.

106 KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)
ecosystem, elements of culture (housing/shelter, customs, values, geography) UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth or insight - want students to understand that . . .) DO (basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the discipline, planning skills---verbs) Compare and contrast Draw conclusions Work collaboratively Develop a timeline Use maps as data Compare and contrast Write a unified paragraph Examine varied perspectives Tomlinson • 02

107 Movie Time…. In Rick’s Classroom, Look For:
The nature of the learning environment Connections between teacher and students Quality of curriculum The nature and uses of assessment Your own questions

108 Inside Rick’s Classroom: Differentiation
Assumptions about WHO we Teach Assumptions about WHERE we Teach Assumptions about WHAT we Teach (Look for evidence of UbD) Assumptions about HOW we Teach Big idea “ahas” about differentiation:

109 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

110 Tiered Assignments In a heterogeneous classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth. Student groups use varied approaches to exploration of essential ideas.

111 Tiered Assignments Rationale for Use Blends assessment and instruction
Allows students to begin learning where they are Allows students to work with appropriately challenging tasks Allows for reinforcement or extension of concepts and principles based on student readiness Allows modification of working conditions based on learning style Avoids work that is anxiety-production (too hard) or boredom-producing (too easy) Promotes success and is therefore motivating

112 Tiered Assignments Guidelines for Use
Be sure the task is focused on a key concept or generalization essential to the study Use a variety of resource materials at differing levels of complexity and associated with different learning modes Adjust the task by complexity, abstractness, number of steps, concreteness, and independence to ensure appropriate challenge Be certain there are clear criteria for quality and success

113 Tiered Assignments In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that students explore ideas and use skills at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth. While students work at varied degrees of difficulty on their tasks, they all explore the essential ideas and work at high levels of thought. Assessment-based tiering allows students to work in their “Zones of Proximal Development” or in a state of “moderate challenge.”

114 What Zone Am I In? THIS is the place to be…
On Target I know some things… I have to think… I have to work… I have to persist… I hit some walls… I’m on my toes… I have to re-group… I feel challenged… Effort leads to success… Too Hard I don’t know where to start… I can’t figure it out… I’m spinning my wheels… I’m missing key skills… I feel frustrated… I feel angry This makes no sense… Effort doesn’t pay off… Too Easy I get it right away… I already know how… This is a cinch… I’m sure to make an A… I’m coasting… I feel relaxed… I’m bored… No big effort necessary… THIS is the place to be… THIS is the achievement zone…

115 Tiering a Lesson What range of learning needs are you likely to address? What should students know, understand, and be able to do as a result of the lesson? Know: Understand: Be Able to Do: What’s your “starting point lesson?” How will you hook the students? What’s your first cloned version? What’s your second cloned version of this activity? What’s your third cloned version of this activity?

116 Continuums for Planning Differentiated Lessons
These continuums can help you plan content, process, and products for gifted learners, as well as other learners with diverse needs. They are not a recipe, but rather a guide for your thinking. In general, students who are gifted in a given subject or very advanced in a particular topic need to function toward the right end of the continuums. There will be exceptions, of course. For example, a highly able learner may at times need to work at a slower pace to study a topic in greater breadth or depth. At the beginning of a complex study, even a highly able learner may need to work at simpler tasks, toward the left of the continuums will need to move toward the right. Simple Complex Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills Concrete Abstract Examples, Illustrations, Applications, Conclusions Single – faceted Multi – faceted Problems, Applications, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections Small Leap Great Leap Application, Insight, Transfer Closed Open Solution, Decisions, Approaches Less Independence Greater Independence Planning, Designing, Monitoring Foundational Transformational Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications Slow Quick Pace of Study, Pace of Thought ASCD, 1994

117 Tiered Activity Subject: Science Concepts: Density & Buoyancy
Introduction: All students take part in an introductory discussion, read the chapter, and watch a lab activity on floating toys. Activities Common to All Three Groups Explore the relationship between density and buoyancy Determine density Conduct an experiment Write a lab report Work at a high level of thinking Share findings with the class

118 The Soda Group Given four cans of different kinds of soda, students determined whether each would float by measuring the density of each can. They completed a lab procedure form by stating the materials, procedures, and conclusions. In an analysis section, they included an explanation of why the cans floated and sank, and stated the relationship between density and buoyancy.

119 The Brine & Egg Group Students developed a prescribed procedure for measuring salt, heating water, dissolving the salt in the water, cooling the brine, determining the mass of water, determining the mass of an egg, recording all data in a data table, pouring the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the solution and observing. They answered questions about their procedures and observations, as well as questions about why a person can float in water, whether it is easier to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium filled balloon floats in air, and the relationship between density and buoyancy.

120 The Boat Group Students first wrote advice to college students building concrete boats to enter in a boat race. They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its density. They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel as well as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold. They built and tested the boat and its projected load. They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float, the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal cargo.

121 Elementary Physical Education Skill: Dribbling and Basketball
Tiered Lesson Elementary Physical Education Skill: Dribbling and Basketball Dribble from point A to point B in a straight line with one hand Switch to the other hand and repeat. Use either hand and develop a new floor pattern from A to B (not a straight line) Zigzag One hand Other hand Increase speed Change pattern to simulate going around opponents In and out of pylons as fast as possible Change hand Dribble with one hand—and a partner playing defense. Increase speed and use other hand Trade roles Through pylons, alternating hands, & partner playing defense Judy Roll-Hilton Central Schools – Hilton, NY

122 A High School Tiered Lesson PHYSICS
As a result of the Lab, students should: Know Key vocabulary (thrust, drag, lift, fluid, pressure, velocity, camber, airfoil, chord, trailing edge, leading edge) Understand Bernoulli’s Principle—As the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases. (Moving fluid creates an area of low pressure. Decrease in pressure on the top of the airfoil causes lift.) Newton’s Third Law of Motion (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction) Aerodynamics is the study of forces acting on an object because air or another gas is moving. Be Able to Do Construct objects that project themselves through space in different ways as a demonstration of student knowledge of key information and understanding of key principles. Great opportunity to make teams of theoretician/scholars and designer/builders In the lab students make Paper Airplanes that fly for Maximum Distance Maximum Hang Time Tricks easiest Hardest Kites Diamond Box Triangle-Layered Pinwheels Forward Motion Backward Motion Upward Motion easiest hardest easiest hardest

123 Secondary Tiered Assignment
Concept: Responsibility Generalizations: We are responsible for ourselves. We “write” our own lives. We have responsibility for those we “tame.” Our actions have a ripple effect. Responsibility may require sacrifice and may result in fulfillment. Our work bears our hallmark. Skills: Argument and support Effective use of figurative language Editing skills Literary analysis Key Vocabulary: Elements of literature Genre traits Voice Sample Literature: The Little Prince Anne Frank by Miep Gies ‘Bloodstain’ “I Will Create’ ‘To Be’ Soliloquy News Articles Samples of Differentiation Both teacher assigned and student selected reading. Both teacher assigned and student selected journal prompts. Use of literature circles to discuss books/readings assigned by readiness. Use of small group, teacher-led focus groups on student-choice readings/ Optional review groups on key vocabulary and skills. In-common and “negotiated” criteria for key writing. Product options. Use of tape recordings, shared reading on complex pieces. Varied work groups. Tiered lesson.

124 Secondary Tiered Assignment
Group 2 Read pages from The Little Prince Find at least one piece of writing that shares the fox’s view on responsibility for those we tame. Find at least 2 contrasting pieces. Your selections must include at least 2 genre. Develop notes on 2 views of responsibility with reasons and illustrations from your selections. Be sure you are thoughtful about each view. Then either: Write an editorial about the implications of the two approaches for our school. Write an interior monologue of a teen at a point of decision about responsibility for someone he/she has tamed. Create a series of editorial cartoons that look at the ripple effect of such decisions in history, science, and our community. Developed by Tomlinson, 98 Task Students will analyze parallel pieces of writing to explore the premise that we are responsible for those we tame. Students will frame an argument to support their position. Group 1 Read pages from The Little Prince Complete an analysis matrix that specifies the fox’s feelings about responsibility toward those we tame and why he believes what he does. Read Bloodstain Complete an analysis matrix on the beliefs of the main character on the same topic. Select a newspaper article from the folder. Write a paragraph or two that compares beliefs of people in the article with the two characters. What advice would you give children about responsibility toward people we tame? Brainstorm on paper and then either: Write a letter to a child giving your advice. Write guidelines for adults who affect children’s lives. Draw and explain a blueprint for becoming a responsible person. Peer revise and then peer edit your work.

125 Novel Think Tac-Toe Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate. Create a pair of collages that compares you and a character in the book. Compare and contrast physical and personality traits. Label your collages so viewers understand your thinking. Write a bio-poem about yourself and another about a main character in the book so your readers see how you and the character are alike and different. Be sure to include the most important traits in each poem. Write a recipe or set of directions for how you would solve a problem and another for how a main character in the book would solve a problem. Your list should help us know you and the character. Draw/paint and write a greeting card that invites us into the scenery and mood of an important part of the book. Be sure the verse helps us understand what is important in the scene and why. Make a model or a map of a key place in your life, and an important one in the novel. Find a way to help viewers understand both what the places are like and why they are important in your life and the characters’. Make 2 timelines. The first should illustrate and describe a least 6-8 shifts in settings in the book. The second should explain and illustrate how the mood changes with the change in setting. Using books of proverbs and/on quotations, find at least 6-8 that you feel reflect what’s important about the novel’s theme. Find at least 6-8 that do the same for your life. Display them and explain your choices. Interview a key character from the book to find out what lessons he/she thinks we should learn from events in the book. Use a Parade magazine for material. Be sure the interview is thorough. Find several songs you think reflect an important message from the book. Prepare an audio collage. Write an exhibit card that helps your listener understand how you think these songs express the book’s meaning. Novel Title: ____________________ Author:_______________________ Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____ Student: ______________________

126 Novel Think Tac-Toe Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate. Write a bio-poem about yourself and another about a main character in the book so your readers see how you and the character are alike and different. Be sure to include the m most important traits in each poem. A character in the book is being written up in the paper 20 years after the novel ends. Write the piece. Where has life taken him/her? Why? Now, do the same for yourself 20 years from now. Make sure both pieces are interesting feature articles. You’re a “profiler.” Write and illustrate a full and useful profile of an interesting character from the book with emphasis on personality traits and mode of operating. While you’re at it, profile yourself, too. Research a town/place you feel is equivalent to the one in which the novel is set. Use maps, sketches, population and other demographic data to help you make comparisons and contrasts. Make a model or a map of a key place in your life, and an important one in the novel. Find a way to help viewers understand both what the places are like and why they are important in your life and the characters’. The time and place in which people find themselves and when events happen shape those people and events in important ways. Find a way to convincingly prove that idea using this book. Find out about famous people in history or current events whose experiences and lives reflect the essential themes of this novel. Show us what you’ve learned. Create a multi-media presentation that fully explores a key theme from the novel. Use at least 3 media (for example, painting, music, poetry, photography, drama, sculpture, calligraphy, etc.) in your exploration. Find several songs you think reflect an important message from the book. Prepare an audio collage. Write an exhibit card that helps your listener understand how you think these songs express the book’s meaning. Novel Title:___________________ Author:_____________________ Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____ Student: ______________________

127 Most important thing to know about the character
Character Map Character Name____________ How the character looks ____________ How the character thinks or acts ____________ Most important thing to know about the character ____________________________________________________________________________________________

128 Character Map Character Name____________
Clues the author gives us about the character ____________ Why the author gives THESE clues ____________ The author’s bottom line about this character ____________________________________________________________________________________________

129 Character Map Character Name____________
What the character says or does ____________ What the character really MEANS to say or do ____________ What the character would mostly like us to know about him or her _____________________________________________________________________________________

130 The Voices in my Head… Potential drawbacks of tiering…
Potential benefits of tiering… I need more help or information…

131 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

132 Your Task… Select 1 strategy you would like to practice. You may work alone, with a partner or a small group. Decide on your content and develop a Know, Understand and Be Able to Do for your lesson. Next, decide on the strategy that you believe address (content, process (activities), and product) the purpose you are targeting (readiness, learning profile, & interest). Record your ideas on a piece of chart paper that you will share with others. Record any management tips you believe would be helpful with your implementation.

133 Learning Centers ISBN #0-87120-812-1
Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom by Carol Ann Tomlinson Learning Centers

134 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

135 Learning Centers How might they best be used to enhance student learning? Share your experiences . . . How are they considered differentiated instruction? What are your recommendations for incorporating this strategy in your classroom? Samples . . .

136 Differentiated Instruction In Action
Learning Centers In Mrs. Walker's first grade class, students work with center work in language arts for a period of time each morning. There are two "choice-boards" in the classrooms one called "Teacher Choice" and one called "Student Choice." Each student has at least two days a week of student choice selections and at least two teacher choice selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred may select from any of 8-12 "pockets" on the student choice board. Those offer a wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing, to model-making. All of the options encourage students to use language in which they find pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student choice work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for example, telling Fred he may pick any choice from the red and yellow rows (but not the blue row). Often she also "Staggers" center work so that some students work at centers while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and others work with desk work on math or language.

137 Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning
Snapshots from Two Primary Classrooms For a part of each day in Mrs. Jasper’s 1st grade class, students rotate among learning centers. Mrs. Jasper has worked hard for several years to provide a variety of learning centers related to several subject areas. All students go to all learning centers because Mrs. Jasper says they feel it’s unfair if they don’t all do the same thing. Students enjoy the movement and the independence the learning centers provide. Many times, Isabel breezes through the center work. Just as frequently, Jaime is confused about how to do the work. Mrs. Jasper tries to help Jaime as often as she can, but she doesn’t worry so much about Isabel because her skills are well beyond those expected of a 1st grader. Today, all students in Mrs. Jasper’s class will work in a learning center on compound words. From a list of 10 compound words, they will select and illustrate 5. Later, Mrs. Jasper will ask for volunteers to show their illustrations. She will do this until the students share illustrations for all 10 words.

138 Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning
Down the hall, Ms. Cunningham also uses learning centers in her 1st grade classroom. She, too, has invested considerable time in developing interesting centers on a variety of subjects. Ms. Cunningham’s centers, however, draw upon some of the principles of differentiated classrooms. Sometimes all students work in a particular learning center if it introduces an idea or skill new to everyone. More often, Ms. Cunningham assigns students to a specific learning center, based on her continually developing sense of their individual readiness. Today, her students will also work at a learning center on compound words. Student’s names are listed at the center; one of four colors is beside each name. Each student works with the folder that matches the color beside his or her name. For example, Sam has the color red next to his name. Using the materials in the red folder, Sam must decide the correct order of pairs of words to make familiar compound words. He also will make a poster that illustrates each simple word and the new compound word they form. Using materials in the blue folder, Jenna will look around the classroom

139 Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning
and in books to find examples of compound words. She will write them out and illustrate them in a booklet. Using materials in the purple folder, Tjuana will write a poem or a story that uses compound words she generates and that make the story or poem interesting. She then can illustrate the compound words to make the story or poem interesting to look at as well as read. In the green folder, Dillon will find a story the teacher has written. It contains correct and incorrect compound words. Dillon will be a word detective, looking for “villains” and “good-guys” among the compound words. He will create a chart to list the good guys (correct compound words) and the villains (incorrect compound words) in the story. He will illustrate the good guys and list the villains as they are in the story, and then write them correctly. Tomorrow during circle time, all students may share what they did with their compound words. As students listen, they are encouraged to say the thing they like best about each presenter’s work. Ms. Cunningham also will call on a few students who may be reticent to volunteer, asking them if they’d be willing to share what they did at the center (Tomlinson, 1999, pp.3-4).

140 Cubing Activities

141 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

142 Cubing Activities

143 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

144 Cubing Connect It Describe It Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind). Compare It What is it similar to? What is it different from? Associate It What does it make you think of? What comes to your mind when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for the subject. Analyze It Tell how it is made. If you can’t really know, use your imagination. Apply It Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used? Argue for It or Against It Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—logical, silly, anywhere in between. Illustrate It Change It Evaluate It Solve It Rearrange It Question It Satirize It Cartoon It

145 Example diagram sketch question timeline storyboard explain

146 Creating a Cubing Exercise
Compare one of the story characters to yourself. How are you alike and how are you different? Start by deciding which part of your unit lends itself to optional activities. Decide which concepts in this unit can you create a cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3 cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or topics? First Step: (use one of the cubes) Write 6 questions that ask for information on the selected unit. Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels, or any of the cubing statements to design questions. Make questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit. Keep one question opinion based-no right or wrong. Second Step: (use other cubes) Use the first cube as your “average” cube, create 2 more using one as a lower level and one as a higher level. Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of questions, just geared to the level, don’t water down or make too busy! Label your cubes so you know which level of readiness you are addressing. Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t tell, adjust slightly. Third Step: Always remember to have an easy problem on each cube and a hard one regardless the levels. Color code the cubes for easy identification and also if students change cubes for questions. Decide on the rules: Will the students be asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any two questions on each of the 3 cubes? Places to get questions: Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study problems, students generated.

147 Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube
Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________ Make a body sculpture to show__________________ Create a dance to show_______________________ Do a mime to help us understand_________________ Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement that________________________ Build/construct a representation of________________ Make a living mobile that shows and balances the elements of __________________ Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of ________________ Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.

148 Ideas for Cubing in Math…
Describe how you would solve_____________ Analyze how this problem helps us use mathematical thinking and problem solving. Compare this problem to one on p._____ Contrast it too. Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular person) could apply this kind of problem to their work or life. Change one or more numbers (elements, signs) in the problem. Give a rule for what that change does. Create an interesting and challenging word problem from the number problem. (Show us how to solve it too) Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem. Interpret the visual so we understand.

149 Cubing Fractions Each student at a table rolls two dice a designated number of times. The 1st dice/cube tells students what to do with a fraction. Order/compare all the fractions from the smallest number to the largest. Add 2 rolled fractions together. Subtract 2 rolled fractions. Divide 2 rolled fractions. Multiply 2 rolled fractions. Model 2 rolled fractions using circles or bars of paper. The 2nd cube/dice contains the fraction which can vary in complexity based on student number readiness. Lynne Beauprey, Illinois

150 The Cube First graders have been studying weather. They visit the Review Center at various times throughout the week as a way to review what they have learned about weather. Draw it Associate it Divide your paper into 4 sections. Choose one type of weather. Label each section with a season and Create a web with this weather in the draw what the playground might look like. Center. Write words in the bubble connecting to the center that describe Compare it how you feel when you see it. Choose 2 seasons. Use a Venn diagram to compare them. Describe it Work with a partner. Draw a card from the jar. Explain it Describe the weather type on the card Talk with a partner about your favorite so your partner can guess. type of weather. Analyze it Read a book about rain. Talk about why we need rain. Jessica Ramsey/2004 Adapted slightly from:

151 Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example
Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska Compare your favorite picture in the story to a similar activity in your life. You may use words and/or pictures. Describe your favorite picture in the Story Family Pictures. Tell why you picked that one. List words that describe your feelings about the Mexican as you look at each picture in the story. Using a Venn Diagram, chart your favorite things and compare them to the favorite things you found in the story. Find common areas that you and the story share. Justify why it is important to meet people who speak a different language and have a different culture. Analyze the favorite things in the story by understanding why these might be traditions in the culture. If you were a researcher asked about the important things in the Mexican culture, what would you say? Red Cube Using Family Pictures by Carmen Lomas Garza

152 Orange Cube Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example
Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska Compare, using the compare and contrast graphic organizer and look at areas of food, shelter, traditions, family life, and recreational activities. Describe the Mexican culture using at least three sentences with three describing words in each sentence. Choreograph a dance or mime to represent the three main ideas that you learned about the Mexican culture. Find and critique another story at the reading center. Compare it to Family Pictures and discuss what elements you liked and did not like of either story. Pretend that you are a child from Mexico. Tell me about your day. What would your chores be? What would you eat? How would you spend your free time? Tell me why? Create your own family album by drawing at least five special activities your family shares. Orange Cube

153 Cubing with Charlotte’s Web
Basic Cube Draw Charlotte as you think she looks. Use a Venn diagram and compare Charlotte and Fern. Use a comic strip to tell what happened in this chapter. Shut your eyes and describe the barn. Jot down your ideas. Predict what will happen in the next chapter using symbols. In your opinion, why is Charlotte a good friend? Abstract Cube Use a graphics program on the computer and create a character web for Wilbur. Use symbols on a Venn diagram to compare Wilbur and Charlotte. Draw the farm and label the items, people, and buildings. Use a storyboard to show the progress of the plot to this point. What is the message that you think the writer wants people to remember? Draw a symbol that illustrates your ideas. When you think of the title, do you agree or disagree that it is a good choice? Why or why not?

154 Anderson,Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer,. Pintrick,
Anderson,Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrick, Raths, Wittrock, Eds. (2001). A taxonomy for l learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

155 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

156 Bloom's Taxonomy History
In 1948 an informal meeting held in Boston was attended by a group of college and university examiners who believed that a common framework for classifying intended student learning outcomes could promote the exchange of test items, testing procedures, and ideas about testing. As examiners, these individuals were responsible for preparing, administering, scoring, and reporting results of comprehensive examinations for undergraduate courses taught at their respective universities. Since developing good multiple-choice items is time-consuming, the examiners hoped to create significant labor savings by facilitating the exchange of items. They proposed to establish a standard vocabulary for indicating what an item was intended to measure. Such regularized meanings were to result from a set of carefully defined categories and subcategories into which any educational objective and, therefore, any test item could be classified. Initially the framework could be limited to the mainstays of all instruction, cognitive objectives. Anderson, Krathwohl, et al., 2001

157 Bloom's Taxonomy History
The original group always considered the framework a work in progress, neither finished nor final. Indeed, only the cognitive domain was developed initially. The affective domain was developed later (Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia, 1964), and although both Simpson (1966) and Harrow (1972) provided frameworks for the psychomotor domain, the original group never did. Further, there was a great deal of concern among the members of the original group that the Taxonomy would freeze thought, stifling the development of new frameworks. That this did not occur is evident from the many alternative frameworks that have been advanced since the Handbook was published. In a memorandum circa 1971 Bloom stated: “Ideally each major field should have its own taxonomy of objectives in its own language – more detailed, closer to the special language and thinking of its experts, reflecting its own appropriate sub-divisions and levels of education, with possible new categories, combination of categories and omitting categories as appropriate.” Anderson, Krathwohl, et al., 2001, p. xxvii

158 The Knowledge Dimension
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The Knowledge Dimension Factual Knowledge Knowledge of terminology Knowledge of specific details and elements Conceptual Knowledge Knowledge of classifications and categories Knowledge of principles and generalizations Knowledge of theories, models, and structures

159 The Knowledge Dimension
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The Knowledge Dimension Procedural Knowledge Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures Metacognitive Knowledge Strategic knowledge Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge Self-knowledge

160 The Cognitive Dimension
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The Cognitive Dimension REMEMBER 1.1 Recognizing 1.2 Recalling UNDERSTAND 2.1 Interpreting 2.2 Exemplifying 2.3 Classifying 2.4 Summarizing 2.5 Inferring 2.6 Comparing 2.7 Explaining APPLY 3.1 Executing 3.2 Implementing

161 The Cognitive Dimension
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The Cognitive Dimension ANALYZE 4.1 Differentiate 4.2 Organizing 4.3 Attributing 5. EVALUATE 5.1 Checking 5.2 Critiquing 6. CREATE 6.1 Generating 6.2 Planning 6.3 Producing

162 Revised Taxonomy Review The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might have students complete. Decide which category from the revised taxonomy you believe these task or questions belong. Which British novelist wrote Charles Dickens? What would happen if there was a flat income tax rather than a graduated income tax? Was that report written from a pro-environment or pro-business point of view? Write the numbers that are needed to solve this problem: Pencils come in packages that contain 12 each and cost $2.00 each. John has $5.00 and wishes to buy 24 pencils. How many packages does he need to buy?

163 Revised Taxonomy Review The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might have students complete. Decide which category from the revised taxonomy you believe these task or questions belong. Density = Mass/Volume: What is the density of a material with a mass of 18 pounds and a volume of 9 cubic inches? What are the positive and negatives consequences of the year-round proposal for schools? Locate an inorganic compound and tell why it is inorganic. “Nation” is to “president” as “state is to ___________. Why does air enter a bicycle tire pump when you pull up on the handle?

164 Revised Taxonomy Review The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might have students complete. Decide which category from the revised taxonomy you believe these task or questions belong. Solve for x: x2 + 2x – 3 = 0 using the technique of completing the square. In your review of the chemistry experiment report, do you believe the author’s conclusion follows from the results of the experiment? What is the author’s purpose in writing the essay you read on the Amazon rain forests? What alternative methods could you use to find what whole numbers yield 60 when multiplied together? The student will be able to generate alternative ways of increasing the brightness of the light in a circuit without changing the battery.

165 RAFT Doug Buehl cited in: Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who BillMeyer & Martin, 1998

166 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

167 R A F T Assignments What is it? How might I use it? Examples . . .
Role Audience Format Topic How might I use it? Examples . . .

168 R A F T ING HELPS A STUDENT UNDERSTAND:
An AUDIENCE of fellow writers, students, citizens, characters, etc. The ROLE of writer, speaker, artist, historian, etc. How to produce a written, spoken, drawn, acted, etc. FORMAT A deeper level of content within the TOPIC studied.

169 RAFT RAFT is an acronym that stands for
Role of the writer. What is the writer’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness? Audience. Who will be reading this writing: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor? Format. What is the best way to present this writing: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem? Topic. Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?

170 RAFT Activities Role Audience Format Topic Gingerbread Man Our Class
Oral Response I never should have listened to the fox Squanto Other Native Americans Pictographs I can help the inept settlers Band Member Other Band Members Demo Tape Here’s how it goes Monet Van Gogh Letter I wish you’d shed more light on the subject Water Vapor Water A Love Letter You make me so hot Battery Loose Wire A Newspaper Article Man has shocking experience Multiplication Fact Division Fact Invitation to a Family Reunion Here’s how we’re related

171 Role Audience Format Topic
R.A.F.T. Role Audience Format Topic

172 A RAFT is… … an engaging, high level strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum … a way to encourage students to… …assume a role …consider their audience, while …examine a topic from their chosen perspective, and …writing in a particular format All of the above can serve as motivators by giving students choice, appealing to their interests and learning profiles, and adapting to student readiness levels.

173 RAFTs can… Be differentiated in a variety of ways: readiness level, learning profile, and/or student interest Be created by the students or Incorporate a blank row for that option Be used as introductory “hooks” into a unit of study Keep one column consistent while varying the other columns in the RAFT grid

174 RAFT: ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC

175 Sample RAFT Strips Language Arts Science History Math Role Audience
Format Topic Semicolon Middle School Diary Entry I Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong N.Y. Times Public Op Ed piece How our Language Defines Who We Are Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree knot A Few Things You Should Know Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles Lung Owner Owner’s Guide To Maximize Product Life Rain Forest John Q. Citizen Paste Up “Ransom” Note Before It’s Too Late Reporter Obituary Hitler is Dead Martin Luther King TV audience of 2010 Speech The Dream Revisited Thomas Jefferson Current Residents of Virginia Full page newspaper ad If I could Talk to You Now Fractions Whole numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of the Family A word problem Students in your class Set of directions How to Get to Know Me Language Arts Science History Math Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998

176 Sample RAFT Strips Role Audience Format Topic Gingerbread Man
Our Class Oral Response I never should have listened to the fox Squanto Other Native Americans Pictographs I can help the inept settlers Band Member Other Band Members Demo Tape Here’s how it goes Positive Numbers Negative Numbers Dating Ad Opposites Attract Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Song Must you go on forever? Decimals Fractions Poem Don’t you get my point? Perimeter Area Diary Entry How your shape affects me Monet Van Gogh Letter I wish you’d shed more light on the subject! Joan of Arc Self Soliloquy To recant, or not to recant; that is the question Tree Urban Sprawl Editorial My life is worth saving Thoreau Public of his day Letter to the Editor Why I moved to the pond Young Chromosome Experienced Chromosome Children’s Book What becomes of us in mitosis? First Grader Kindergartner Ad What’s best about 1st grade?

177 RAFT Strips, cont’d Role Audience Format Topic Hal (Henry V, Part 1)
Self Diary Entry My friend Falstaff-past, present, future Magnet First Graders Letter Here’s what I’m attracted to… Transparency Slide Show Personal Ad Spruce up your presentation LBJ Viet Nam Vet Apology Letter What was I thinking… Computer Fifth Graders Flow Chart Turning data into a graph with EXCEL P Waves S Waves Dear John Letter Why we have to stop seeing each other Carbon Atom Hydrogen Atom Atom seeking atom A Variable in an Equation Real Numbers Ad for the Circus What is my value in the balancing act? Return Key Middle Schoolers Captain Kirk’s Bulletin to his crew When to beam to another paragraph Conductor The Band Mime How to play this style of music Basic Multiplication Fact Basic Division Fact Invitation to a family reunion Here’s how we’re related

178 Grade 6 Social Studies RAFT
Students will Know: Names and roles of groups in the feudal class system. Understand: Roles in the feudal system were interdependent. A person’s role in the feudal system will shape his/her perspective on events. Be Able to Do: Research See events through varied perspectives Share research & perspectives with peers

179 Feudal System Raft cont’d
Role Audience Format Topic King The Subjects Proclamation Read My Lips, New Taxes Knight Squire Job Description Chivalry, Is it for You? Lord Contract Let’s Make a Deal Serf Animals Lament Poem My So Called Life Monk Masses Illuminated Manuscript Do As I Say, Not As I Do Lady Pages Song ABC, 123 Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda” to guide their conversation Kathryn Seaman

180 Self Portrait RAFT High School Art
Students will Know: Characteristics of self portrait Appropriate use of artistic materials Principles of Design Definition of artistic expression Understand: Each artist has a personal style Personal style reflects the individual’s culture, time, and personal experiences. Use of materials and style are related Be Able to Do: Analyze an artist’s personal style and use of materials Create a facsimile of an artist’s personal style and use of materials

181 Self Portrait RAFT Role Audience Format Topic Norman Rockwell Masses
Illustration What You See is What You Get Van Gogh Self Oil Painting Can I Find Myself In Here? Andy Warhol Someone you want to know the true you Photograph Now you see Me, Now you Don’t Rueben Props Make the Person Goya School Charcoal On the Side, but Central

182 RAFT Assignments Grade 10 English
Know: Voice, Tone, Style Understand: Every writer has a voice Voice is shaped by life experiences and reflects the writer Voice shapes expression Voice affects communication Voice and style are related Be Able to Do: Describe a writers voice and style Mimic a writer’s voice and style Create a piece of writing that reflects a writer’s voice and style Role Audience Format Topic Edgar Allen Poe 10th grade writers Letter Here’s how I found my voice Garrison Keillor E mail Emily Dickinson Self Diary entry Looking for my voice 10th grader English teacher Formal request Please help me find my voice Teacher 10th graders Interior monologue Finding a balance between voice and expectations 3 authors The public Visual symbols/logos annotated Here’s what represents my voice 3 authors from different genre One another Conversation What shaped my voice and style

183 RAFT Planning Sheet Know Role Audience Format Topic Understand Do
How to Differentiate: Tiered? (See Equalizer) Profile? (Differentiate Format) Interest? (Keep options equivalent in learning) Other? Role Audience Format Topic

184 Graphic Organizers

185 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

186 Graphic Organizers How do they address the diverse needs of students?
Under what conditions might they best be used Examples…. Suggestions… Resources [www.graphicorganizers.com]

187 Graphic Organizer: Identifying Similarities and Differences
COMPARISON MATRIX Nutrients Items to Be Compared Apples Oranges Pears Grapes Calcium Vitamin C Sugar Content Fiber Juice

188 Double Cell Diagram Two items linked by characteristics or attributes.
Critical Questions: What items do you want to compare? What characteristics do the items have in common? What are not in common? How are the items similar and different? A Double Cell Diagram is an excellent substitute for a Venn Diagram for comparing likenesses and differences. Good for use with younger children. Use cells and links with younger children to help them create more complex webs and maps in the future. A good tool to launch writing about what is similar and what is not. Two items linked by characteristics or attributes.

189 Venn Diagram Expanded Critical Questions: What items do you want to compare? What chracteristics do the items have in common (intersecting portions)? How are the items similar and different (nonintersecting portion) based on the characteristics? Use when comparing three items. Can be used with younger and older children. When using more than two items consider using a Comparison Matrix. See Venn Diagram Basic and Double Cell Diagram for comparing two items Three items linked by characteristics or attributes

190 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

191

192 Used to show the interaction of a complex event or complex phenomenon

193

194

195 defining the components of the problem and attempted solutions

196 Used to describe the stages of something, the steps in a linear procedure, a sequence of events or the goals, actions, and outcomes of a historical figure or character in a novel

197

198 Graphic Organizers A graphic organizer forms a powerful visual picture of information and allows the mind to see patterns and relationships.

199 Graphic Organizers Ocean Beach Elementary School
Download graphic organizers and keep them in a file for student use. Graphic organizers can be extended to make them more complex. On this graphic organizer have some students justify their selections and provide evidence of how these events have shaped our lives today. Ocean Beach Elementary School

200 ThinkDots An Instructional Strategy for Differentiation by
Readiness, Interest or Learning Style  Kay Brimijoin, 1999

201 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

202 ThinkDOTs After a conceptual unit has been presented and students are familiar with the ideas and associated skills, “Think DOTS” is an excellent activity for students to construct meaning for themselves about the concept they are studying. The instructor first defines readiness levels, interests or learning styles in the class, using on-going assessment. Each student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die, and an activity sheet. Each student rolls the die and completes the activity on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. Each student then completes the activity on the activity sheet. Materials: 1.        8 ½ x 11 inch paper 2.        Hole punch 3.        Metal or plastic rings 4.        Dice 5. Scissors 6. Markers or dots 7. Laminating materials

203 ThinkDOTs pg. 2 Construction:
1.   For each readiness level, six activities should be created. 2.  On an 8 ½ x 11 inch page divided into six sections (this can be done easily on the computer by creating a 2 x 3 cell table and saving it as a template), the activities should be written or typed in each section. 3.  On the back of each page, dots corresponding to the dots on the faces of a die should be either drawn or affixed (you can use Avery adhesive dots) on each of the six sections of the page. 4. The pages should be laminated for durability. 5. Then each page should be cut into the six sections. 6.  Use a hole punch to make holes in one corner or in the top of each activity card. 7.  Use a metal or plastic ring to hold each set of six cards together (you can get 100 metal rings from Office Suppliers in Roanoke for $9.00) 8.   Create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy recording and management.

204 ThinkDOTs pg. 3 Suggestions:
1.  Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different readiness levels, interests or learning styles. 2.  Have students work in pairs. 3.  Let students choose which activities – for example: roll the die and choose any three; create complex activities and have students choose just one to work on over a number of days. 4.  After students have worked on activity cards individually, have them come together in groups by levels, interest or learning style to synthesize 

205 ThinkDOTs pg. 4 Application:
1.  Use “ThinkDOTS” to lead students into deeper exploration of a concept. 2.  Use “ThinkDOTS” for review before assessment. 3.  Use “ThinkDOTS” as an assessment.

206 “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice
Discuss how prejudice and discrimination are not only harmful to the victim, but also to those who practice them. Scapegoating Imagine a group of people that could be scapegoats. List and describe stereotypes of this group and the treatments they received because of them. Articles Read the article. What could be reasons for the persecution? How can you justify and minds of those responsible?  Photography Photographs tell stories. Write a caption for the photo and explain why you chose it. Genetics Certain characteristics are blamed on genetics. Do genetics impact the characteristics of your group? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. Use your science knowledge. Stereotypes Your group was persecuted. Identify a group who has been persecuted in more recent years. Compare the two and give reasons why.

207 “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice
Prejudice Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not? Scapegoating What is scapegoating? Explore the word’s etymology and hypothesize about its present day meaning. How was your group scapegoated? Articles Read the article. What is genocide? Did the people in your article face genocide? Why? Photography Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body language, and objects to help determine social, economic, country of origin and so on. Can you see the emotions in the people? How? Do you think they are related? Genetics Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way genetics affects your group (in your opinion). If genetics don’t affect your group explain why. Stereotypes  Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a clique in the school and discuss the traits of that group. Are they stereotyped?

208 “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice
Discuss the following statement: “Genocide can never be eliminated because it is deeply rooted in human nature.” Do you agree or disagree? Provide evidence from your readings for your position. Scapegoating Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took place in your group. Compare the scapegoating of your group to that of a present day group. Articles  Read the article. If you were the person behind the persecution and were asked why you did what you did, what would you say? Photography  Compare two photographs taken of similar events. What are the similarities and differences? What might be the significance of these similarities and differences? Genetic  Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race? Why? Does it in the group you are studying? Why? Stereotypes  Name a group you stereotype and discuss those traits that you stereotype. What were the stereotypes your group had? 

209 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

210 Complex Instruction As Interpreted by Carol Tomlinson, University of Virginia
Materials and instructions must be in multiple languages so that all students have their language represented. Pictorial/visual representations are also helpful. Reading and writing are integrated into the task in ways which make them a means to accomplish a fascinating end. Multiple intelligences should be drawn upon in a real world way. Tasks must require many different talents in order to be completed adequately. Teachers move among groups, asking questions about student work and thought, probing decisions, and facilitating understanding. Teachers methodically engage in “assignment of status” (looking for student strengths, especially nontraditional areas), and pointing them out to the class with explanations of why the skills are important ones in the real world. Teachers delegate authority for learning increasing it over time as they support students in gaining skills needed to manage the authority well.

211 Complex Instruction Elements
Students work together in small groups (heterogeneous in nature) at learning centers on a task which calls upon the skills of all students in the group. Groups change often so all students in a class work with all others in variety of contexts. Multilingual groups must include a bilingual student to serve as a bridge. Students are encouraged to speak in their own language in the group. Tasks must be open-ended. Tasks must be intrinsically interesting to the students. The tasks must be uncertain (fuzzy). The tasks must be challenging. Tasks must involve the use of real objects.

212 A Sample of a Complex Instruction Task for Tenth Graders in English
The task card reads: We have been working with how writers’ lives (and ours) are like metaphors which they (we) create through actions an deeds—including writing. Robert Frost wrote a poem called “The Road Not Taken.” Your task is to analyze the poem as a metaphor for Frost’s life. To do that, you should: Find the poem, read it, interpret it, and reach consensus on what’s going on with it and what it means.

213 A Sample of a Complex Instruction Task for Tenth Graders in English (cont’d.)
Research Frost’s life, making a “stepping stones” diagram of his life, similar to the ones you created for your own life earlier this month. Be certain that your final products demonstrate your understanding of metaphor, the relationship between varied art forms in communicating human meaning, and details of the people and poem with whom/which you are working. As usual, you should appoint a group leader and materials monitor. Determine the best roles for each person in your group to play in completing your task. Develop a written work plan, including a timeline and group conference times. In the end, be ready to share the rubric by which your group’s work should be assessed (including required elements as well as your own sense of what else constitutes an appropriate product.) You may have up to 30 minutes to make your presentation(s) – plus a ten minute question exchange with others in the class who view your work.

214 Virginia History and Geography
Key Concepts and Understandings: Locations of places can be describe using terms that show relationships. Locations of places can be described using reference systems on maps. Reasons can be identified for locations of places. Relationships within places include how people depend upon the environment. Places may be represented and described in many different ways. Key Skills: Reading maps (d) Using and making symbols (d) Inference/drawing conclusions (r) Use of research to achieve understanding (b) Planning (t) Writing (b) Collaboration (s) Key Facts: Essential vocabulary (legend, latitude, longitude, Mid-Atlantic Region, Atlantic Ocean) Geographic regions of Virginia (e.g., Tidewater, Piedmont, etc.) Key features of each Virginia region

215 Getting Acquainted with Virginia
A Complex Instruction Task for 4th Graders You’ll soon be on your way to learning more about Virginia than most adults know. Here’s a way to start becoming experts. This task is designed to draw on the strengths of everyone in your group. Six task cards will help you know what you need to do. Task Card No. 1 Give as many ways as you can to locate Virginia (where is it in relation to bodies of water, continents, other states, in the U.S.). Find an interesting and useful way to show us what you figure out about Virginia’s location. Task Card No. 2 Use reference systems (like numbered grids, latitude, longitude, parallels and meridians) to locate Virginia precisely on globes and maps. Create a set of instructions we can use to locate Virginia as you did. Assume we know nothing about using maps an globes.

216 Getting Acquainted with Virginia A Complex Instruction Task for 4th Graders
Task Card No. 3 Draw or sketch places in Virginia with large populations. Create symbols for a map that help us figure out why so many people live there and post them on a blank map. Make legend to help us interpret the symbols. Do the same with great Virginia places for recreation (sketches, symbols/legend). Task Card No. 4 Find 4 cities or towns in Virginia where important or famous people lived. Have each of the people talk to us about that place, what it was like to be there, how they influenced the place and how the place influenced them. Task Card No. 5 Select one of the people in #4 and complete a “Now and Then” chart to show what these things were like in that person’s town when they were there and what they would be like now: transportation, recreation, population size, major ways of making money, important resources, life span, ways of communicating. It’s fine to draw and/or write on the chart.

217 Getting Acquainted with Virginia A Complex Instruction Task for 4th Graders
Task Card No. 6 Interview someone that has lived in our town a very long time. Find out what has changed, what has stayed the same, what seems better, what seems worse, interesting things the person has done while they’ve lived here, and other things you think are interesting. Get the person to tell you a story about something that happened here. Find a way to help us get to know this person – and this town through the eyes of this person. This Complex Instruction task draws on the following intellectual skills: Fluency – generating many ideas Spatial interpretation (figuring out codes) Translation of print ideas into oral/visual form (creativity) Reading and research Dramatic ability Questioning/interviewing Planning/evaluating plans

218 A Complex Instruction Task for Middle School U.S. History
Background: The class is studying the pre-Civil War era. An emphasis is on change and the courage required for change. They are exploring change in economics, beliefs, views of government, and culture during this time. One book they are reading in common is Get On Board: The Story of the Underground Railroad by Jim Haskins. The Task: For six weeks, students work in groups of six on their Complex Instruction task as they do many other in-class tasks related to their topic and concepts. The teacher often relates class work and discussion to the CI task. Sometimes students will have all or part of a class period to work on the CI task. The CI task is often homework as well. The CI Instructions Your group must develop and write a scenario (probably at least 5 pages in length) that describes a time, place, and set of circumstances in which your CI task will be rooted. One or more slaves will try to flee to freedom. Who are they? What are their circumstances? Be sure to include location, time in history, living circumstances over an extended period, gender, age, family, and stories that help us experience their world and thought.

219 Middle School U.S. History
Each person in your group must take on a role. Here are your choices: A slave fleeing An abolitionist A Quaker A slave owner A freed slave A Native American Another role of your choice (clear it with the teacher) Everyone’s role must be rooted in your group scenario. Through research, reading and class, gather data about your role and one other role adopted by someone in your group. In the end, each role should be researched by 2 group members to provide greater insight and maximum data. You have primary responsibility for “your” role, but secondary responsibility to help someone else achieve a rich and accurate understanding of “their” role. Generate as many data sheets as you can about “your” own role and your secondary role. There’ll be times to share written work.

220 Middle School U.S. History
Create your own rich, historically defensible framework of your group scenario. Be sure to include detail that reflects: Political and economic events Culture of the person and times Culture of others involved in your scenario The Underground Railroad experience Relevant laws Tensions leading to the Civil War We’ll use a rubric so you’re sure how to do a high quality job. Be sure the underlying theme of your work reflects issues of courage and change. (Include fear, loss, gain, and resolve to act.) You will have several opportunities (with assigned roles) to take part in history circles with your group so you can learn from and help one another. A big point here is to give everyone a chance to see similar events through different eyes. Ultimately, you will need to be a part of either two or three depiction teams which literally “show” us the essence of what it was like to be a part of the unfolding scenario at a key point. You can negotiate with the teacher what your assignments will be. Among forms your depictions can take are: A speech A sermon An oral story A written story Paintings or drawings with narration cards

221 Middle School U.S. History
Songs with narration A book chapter An interior monologue A series of letters A trial enactment An annotated and illustrated timeline A series of editorials from a specified newspaper A set of contrasting editorials from contrasting newspapers A format or your choice (clear this with your teacher) Whatever your depictions, they must include at least three perspectives on events – all of them accurate in historical detail and rich in insight. In the end, your group will exhibit for one or more groups who will respond to your work – as will at least one adult. There will be time in class to learn, ask questions, show ideas, get unstuck, and plan. If you have other ideas to make your work more interesting, let me know!

222 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02

223 WebQuests A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners’ time well, to focus on using information rather than looking for it, and to support learners’ thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The model was developed in the early 1995 at San Diego State University by Bernie Dodge with Tom March.

224 Uses of Webquests Learning Center Activities
Hook the computer up to your TV to use as a station. Find webquests that help students process the “Big Ideas” in your curricular unit. Tiered Assignments Locate 3 different webquests at varying levels of complexity that help students apply the unit’s skills or ideas. Anchor Activity for Research Create your own Filamentality site to assist students in carrying out their research.

225 The Power of Webquests According to Bernie Dodge (1997), a webquest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which students interact with information gleaned primarily from resources on the Internet. Check out the digital dozen and Filamentality Webquest Design Patterns

226 http://projects. edtech. sandi. net/staffdev/buildingblocks/p-index
Webquests as Powerful Teaching Tools in Math and Science Bones and the Badge Webquest

227 Steps for Guiding Student Research
Assess, Find, or Create Student Interests Help Students Find a Question(s) to Research Develop a Plan of Action to Guide the Research Help Locate Multiple Resources Provide Methodological Assistance Develop a Research Question(s) to Answer Provide Managerial Assistance Help to Find Products and Audiences Provide Feedback/Escalate the Process Evaluate 227 4

228 Assess, Find, and Create Interest
Investigations Stem from Many Sources: Individual interests Curricular units of study Problems that exist in the world (city, state, community, global, etc.) Unresolved questions Someone asking students to generate solutions to problems Strategies for Generating Interest: Sharing articles from Discover, Newsweek, newspapers Guest speakers Student interest inventories/questionnaires Questions that students ask Student identified problems I wonder bulletin boards Interest centers 228 15

229 If I ran the school Name _________________ Grade__________Teacher________ If I ran the school, I would choose to learn about these ten things. I am really interested in: The Stars and Planets Birds Dinosaurs and fossils Life in the Ocean The Human Body Genetics Animals Outer Space Insects Chemistry Diseases I am really interested in: Families Countries My Community Famous People Holidays Explorers Travel and Transportation Wars History of Long Ago The Future 229 16

230 Interest-A-Lyzers http://www.creativelearningpress.com
Interest-A-Lyzer Family of Instruments Author: Joseph S. Renzulli Copyright 1997 80 pages ISBN: X Grade Level: K-12 This manual describes the six interest assessment tools that comprise the Interest-A-Lyzer "Family of Instruments." Dr. Renzulli discusses the importance of assessing student interests and provides suggestions for administering and interpreting these instruments in the school setting. Sample pages from each interest assessment tool are included in the appendix. 230 17

231 Famous People Technology History The Future Economy Communication
TOPIC GENERATOR My Topic Economy Communication Problems Geography Fine Arts/ Literature Science Mathematics Ecology 231 19

232 Who Does Research? What kinds of questions would these people ask?
Wildlife Biologist Geographer Historian Writer Teacher Newspaper Reporters Doctors Questions They Ask? Person Name(s) __________________________________________ 232 20

233 Questions, Questions, Everywhere
Researchers are always asking questions about the world around them. They notice things that are interesting, they make observations and wonder why certain things behave as they do, and they are sensitive to problems. Generate some of your own questions that you WONDER about. Categories Eating habits Rules Culture Community Friendship School Growing Up Beliefs Homeless Elderly 233 21

234 Help Students Find a Question(s) to Ask
Listening to their questions Observing their actions As they begin to wonder why Their pattern of reading interests Favorite subjects Extracurricular activities When they mention a concern Casual statements or opinion Interest in particular topics 234 22

235 Is, Can, Will, Could (Should,
Generating Research Questions Cube 1 Roll the dice to generate beginning questions. Select one word from each cube to generate possible questions. Use research phrases to prompt possible research questions. It might be interesting to know if? It might be interesting to know how? It might be interesting to know why? Historically, I wonder how or why? I wonder if _____ is related to ____? What factors influenced..? If I _____, I wonder if _____will occur? Cube 2 Cube 1 Words Who, What, When, Where, Why, How Cube 2 Words Is, Can, Will, Could (Should, Would), Might, Did 235 23

236 Fill out the boxes with your questions.
Question Boxes Fill out the boxes with your questions. How Why Where When What Who Should, Would, Could Might Will Can Did Is Name(s) ______________________________________ 236 24

237 Provide Methodological Assistance
How to gather data from your questions Interviews (questioning individuals, asking open-ended questions) Surveys and questionnaires (make one) Recording notes Recording references Designing an experiment Shift from learning about to learning how to gather, categorize, analyze, and interpret data. Learn the different types of research conducted by professionals and the tools and methods they use to conduct their research. 237 25

238 Provide Managerial Assistance
Provide access to people and equipment. Help students to design a way to gather data, organizing findings, and report findings. 238 33

239 Develop a Plan of Action to
Guide the Research PRODUCT: This is the type of product that I could create. AUDIENCE: This is the audience who could benefit from my research. PROBLEMS: These are the problems that I may encounter. STEPS: Here are the steps I need to take to accomplish my plan. RESOURCES: These are the resources I need to conduct my study. WHAT: This is what I plan to research. 239 34

240 Research Planning Sheet
Name________Date_______Class_________ Problem Finding: Identify the research problem or the area of interest you wish to investigate. Problem Focusing: State the research question(s) that will guide your study. Research Design: Identify the type of research that you will use in your study. Descriptive Correlational Historical Experimental Developmental Case and Field 240 35

241 Sample Selection: Explain the type of sampling that you will use.
Who:________________ How many:____________ How: Random Systematic Stratified Cluster Data Collection: Identify how you will collect your data. Observation Survey Experimental results Interviews Document analysis Questionnaires Data Analysis: Identify the type of research that you will use in your study. Qualitative Mean, mode, median, range, variance, standard deviation, frequency Chi Square T-Test Correlation Other Quantitative Domains Themes Taxonomies Reporting Results: In what format will you report your results? Who will be your audience? 241 36

242 Research Folder Design
Research Questions References Books Journals Videos/CD/Films Person Newspapers Question #1 Question #2 Question #3 Color code your question and answer cards so they match. Glue computer disk holder on the back of the research folder. Provide examples of how to cite sources on each reference page. Data File Research Folder Design 242 37

243 ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN Name Date School Homeroom My Activities:
________________ _____________ ____________ Evaluation: I completed my goals. I used my time wisely. I did my best thinking. Something I learned today: Next time I plan to: ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN 243 38

244 Help Locate Multiple Resources
Books Magazines Individuals for interviews Places to write for information Historical documents Other researchers Use the “web” and other electronic resources 244 39

245 Help Identify Final Products and Audiences
Show evidence of increased problem-solving, planning, and decision-making abilities; Show evidence of increased proficiency with methodological skills; Show evidence of increased understanding of research procedures; Approximate the types of products that practicing professionals create in their fields. Products are authentic to the discipline Products show evidence of growth in content and in skill usage Products uses multiple references Products help to explain what has been learned 245 40

246 Evaluate the Process Name of Student: Title of Project:
Date Started: Date Completed: Variety of Resources Used to Complete the Project ……………………………… Level of Resources Used to Complete the Project ……………………………… Level of Advanced Knowledge Gained While Completing the Project ………………….. Time and Effort Put Into Completing the Project …………………………………………… Authentic Methodology Used During the Project ………………………………………….. Care and Attention to Detail in Completing the Project………………………………….. Quality of Final Project in Comparison to Others His/Her Age…………………………… Task Commitment While Completing the Project ………………………………………….. Independent While Completing the Project …………………………………………. Appropriate of Audience for the Project …………………………………………. Originality and Uniqueness of the Final Project …………………………………………. Modified from 246 43

247 Two Views of Assessment
Assessment is For: Gate Keeping Judging Right Answers Control Comparison to Others Use with Single Activities Assessment is For: Nurturing Guiding Self Reflection Information Comparison to Task Use Over Multiple Activities Tomlinson

248 What is a Grade? “..a grade (is)….an inadequate report of an imprecise judgment of a biased and variable judge of the extent to which a student has attained an undefined level of mastery of an unknown proportion of an indefinite amount of materials” Paul Dressell, Michigan State University

249 Questions About Grading
How do learners benefit from a grading system that reminds everyone that students with disabilities or who speak English as a Second Language do not perform as well as students without disabilities or for whom English is their native tongue? What do we gain by telling our most able learners that they are “excellent” on the basis of a standard that requires modest effort, calls for no intellectual risks, necessitates no persistence, and demands that they develop few academic coping skills? In what ways do our current grading practices motivate struggling or advanced learners to persist in the face of difficulty? Is there an opportunity for struggling learners to encounter excellence in our current grading practices? Is there an opportunity for advanced learners to encounter struggle in our current grading practices?

250 Thoughts About Grading and Differentiation
I need to grade for success in the same way I teach and assess for success. If much of the time I give a student work appropriate for his or her current needs, I must then grade the student’s work on the basis of clearly delineated criteria for quality work on that task. I need to give students consistent, meaningful feedback that clarifies for them--and for me--present successes and next learning steps. I need to look for growth patterns over time when I assign report card grades. Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). Grading for success. Educational Leadership, 58(6),

251 Thinking Outside The Box About Grading....
We could, for example, use record keeping systems and reporting mechanisms that speak to elements such as.. Achievement [noted by standardized scores]. Progress [measured against standards or individual goals]. Growth [in comparison with self]. Habits and attitudes. Work quality (Wiggins, 1999). [Tomlison & Allan, 2000, p. 110]

252 Differentiated Report Cards
On report cards, I need to find a way to show individual growth and relative standing to students and parents A = Excellent Growth B = Very Good Growth C = Some Growth D = Little Growth F = No Observable Growth 1 = The student is Above Grade Level 2 = The student is Working At Grade Level 3 = The student is Working Below Grade Level Tomlinson, 2001

253 Classroom Instruction
that Works Effect Size Strategy 1.61 Compare and Contrast 1.0 Summarizing & Notetaking .80 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition .77 Homework [meaningful] & Practice .75 Nonlinguistic Representations .73 Cooperative Learning .61 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback .61 Generating and Testing Hypotheses .59 Questions, Cues, Advanced Organizers Marzano, ASCD

254 Key Characteristics of Effective Scaffolding
1. SCAFFOLDING PROVIDES CLEAR DIRECTIONS     • Explains precisely what must be done to achieve success • Anticipates and addresses problems and insecurities Uses user-friendly language and format to minimize confusion    • Places a premium on clarity • Speeds the learner toward success 2. SCAFFOLDING CLARIFIES PURPOSE • Is built around essential questions • Clarifies meaning and worth • Helps keep the big picture central and in focus • Makes work purposeful and mindful • Links with key concepts and principles • Requires emphasis on sorting and sifting (vs. gathering) • Leads students to construct new understandings 3. SCAFFOLDING KEEPS STUDENTS ON TASK • Provides a pathway or route for the learner • Allows freedom within parameters • Serves as a guard rail to keep students from going over the edge • Provides a progression of tasks that is both controlling and liberating

255 4. SCAFFOLDING PROVIDES CLEAR
EXPECTATIONS FOR QUALITY • Provides examples of quality work • Addresses elements needing learner attention • Provides clear indicators of quality for each element • Addresses content, process and product 5. SCAFFOLDING POINTS STUDENTS TO WORTHY SOURCES OF HELP AND INFORMATION • Helps students avoid weak and unreliable information • Focuses on interpretation of good information vs. wandering in fog • Ensures a high signal-to-fog ratio • Does not eliminate choice, but supports making useful choices • Speeds the learner toward success 6, SCAFFOLDING REDUCES UNCERTAINTY, SURPRISE & DISAPPOINTMENT Goal is to maximize learning efficiency Scaffolding is refined by watching students work

256 7. SCAFFOLDING DELIVERS EFFICIENCY
• Requires hard work, but not wasted work • Maximizes time on task • Creates momentum • Directs energy to insight • Accelerates the drive toward meaning SCAFFOLDING PROVIDING SUPPORT NEEDED FOR A STUDENT TO SUCCEED IN WORK SLIGHTLY BEYOND HIS/HER COMFORT ZONE. ¨FOR EXAMPLE • Directions that give more structure--or less • Icons to help interpret print • Tape recorders to help with writing • Use of manipulatives (when needed) beyond the student’s grasp • Clear criteria for success • Re-teaching/extended teaching • SQ3R type strategies • Reading buddies (with appropriate • Teaching through multiple modes directions) • Use of organizers • Double entry journals (at appropriate • New American Lecture challenges) • Use of study guides • Gearing reading materials to student • Modeling reading level • Use of manipulations (when needed) Adapted from: Jamie Mckenzie Dec • Scaffolding for Success • Tomlinson • 00

257 Management Hints

258 Giving Directions If the whole class is doing the same activity then give the directions to the whole group. Do not give multiple task directions to the whole class. For small group work, tape directions so students can listen to them repeatedly Use task cards to give directions to small groups. A general rule is that once the teacher has given directions the students can’t interrupt while he/she is working with a small group Ask Me Visors

259 Assigning Groups Clothes pins with student’s names to assign them to a particular task Color code children to certain groups (a transparency with students names in color works well) Cubing allows you to assign groups by interest or readiness level

260 Handling Materials Assign jobs to different students (materials handler, table captain) As a teacher ask yourself, “Is this something I have to do myself, or can the students learn to do it?” Remember that you have to teach children how to become responsible for their own things.

261 Transitions Directions for transitions need to be given with clarity and urgency. Time limit for transition Address the acceptable noise level Rehearsal

262 Routines for Handling Paperwork
Color-coded work folders Portfolios Baskets for each curricular area or class period Filing Cabinet Key to these organizational patterns is that the children have access to their own work and know how to file and/or find what they need to accomplish a task.

263 Time Must be flexible in order to address every child’s readiness level Catch-up days Anchoring Activities Postcards for Writing Ideas Independent Investigations

264 Thinking it Over Aha’s! Huh?

265 These ideas square with my beliefs.
Three points I want to remember. These are the ideas that are going around in my head. Some of the ideas I am leaving here with today are….. This made me wiggle in my seat.

266 The Business of Schools is:
The Business of Schools Is to produce work that engages students, that is so compelling that students persist when they experience difficulties, and that is so challenging that students have a sense of accomplishment, of satisfaction—indeed, of delight—when they successfully accomplish the tasks assigned. Inventing Better Schools * Schlechty


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