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ASSESSMENT Formative, Summative, and Performance-Based

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1 ASSESSMENT Formative, Summative, and Performance-Based
ECED 4289 Assessment Module

2 Thinking Moment Think back over your previous learning experiences, in or outside of school. Identify the best feedback system you ever encountered. What were the characteristics of the feedback that made it so effective?


4 Questions to Ponder How are formative assessments and summative assessments similar and different? What is performance-based assessment? What processes and strategies support checks for understanding and assessment? When do you assess students?

5 The Assessment-Instruction Process
Pre – Assessment “finding out” Summative Assessment “making sure” Formative Assessment “checking in” “feedback” “student involvement

6 Pre-Assessment Strategies
Checklist Pre-test KWL Charts Graphic Organizers Student Discussions Student Demonstrations Student Products Student Work Samples Show of hands/EPR (Every Pupil Response) Standardized Test Data Teacher Observation Writing Prompts

7 Assessments FOR learning happens while learning is still underway.
Formative Assessment Assessments FOR learning happens while learning is still underway. These are assessments that: are conducted throughout teaching and learning to diagnose student needs plan the next steps in instruction provide students with feedback they can use to improve the quality of their work help students see and feel how they are in control of their journey to success

8 Formative assessment delivers information during the instructional process, before the summative assessment. Both the teacher and the student use formative assessment results to make decisions about what actions to take to promote further learning. It is an ongoing, dynamic process that involves far more than frequent testing, and measurement of student learning is just one of its components. Almost any assessment instrument can be used for summative or formative purposes, but some, by design, are better suited to summative use and others to formative use.

9 Effective Formative Assessments Provide the Following:
Provide a clear and understandable vision of the learning target Use examples and models of strong and weak work 3. Offer regular descriptive feedback. Teach students to self-assess and set goals. 5. Engage students in self-reflection, and let them keep track of and share their learning.

10 Formative Assessments Examples
Conference Cooperative Learning Demonstrations Exit Card Graphic Organizers Interviews Journal Entry Sentence Stems Learning Logs Oral Attitude Surveys Oral Presentations Problem Solving Questioning Quiz Response Groups Self-Evaluations 3-2-1

11 Summative Assessment A summative assessment/evaluation is designed to:
provide information make judgments about student achievement at the end of a sequence of instruction, (e.g., final drafts/attempts, tests, exam, assignments, projects, performances) It is a means to determine a student’s mastery and understanding of information, skills, concepts, or processes.

12 Summative Assessment Strategies
Unit Test Performance Task Product/Exhibit Demonstration Portfolio Review

13 It is assessment of learning
Summative Assessment It is assessment of learning Used to determine a student’s mastery and understanding of information, skills, concepts, or processes. should reflect formative assessments that precede it should match material taught may determine student’s exit achievement may be tied to a final decision, grade or report should align with instructional/curricular outcomes may be a form of alternative assessment

14 Comparison Chart Formative Summative
Occurs before or during instruction Assessment for learning Descriptive feedback Feedback is the central function Continuous Informal High impact on learning Guides instruction Occurs after instruction Assessment of learning Evaluative feedback Periodic Formal Limited positive impact on learning May be used as diagnostic assessment

15 Performance-Based Assessment
derivative of the summative assessment. focuses on achievement. often aligned with the standards-based education reform and outcomes-based education movement. A well-defined task is identified. Students are asked to create, produce or do something, often in settings that involve real-world application of knowledge and skills. Proficiency is demonstrated by providing an extended response. 

16 Performance assessments can be used formatively or summatively.
Performance-based assessments (also known as performance assessments) require students to apply knowledge and skills. Performance assessments can be used formatively or summatively. These assessments can be labor- and time-intensive. They also tend to be quite diverse. Work is evaluated using pre-established criteria consist of two components: a performance task (actual prompt or activity) a scoring rubric (scoring guide consisting of pre-established performance criteria)

17 Students may complete individually or in small groups.
Permits direct observation of student skills and capabilities (very different from pencil-and-paper tests) Performance assessments: must be linked to instructional objectives tend to be less abstract than more traditional forms of assessment (more “real world”) based in the “real world” = authentic assessment the assessments, by themselves, are meaningful learning activities concept of performance assessments is not new; used for years in other fields

18 Advantages Limitations Can assess students’ abilities “to do.”
Can assess skills that cannot be assessed through more traditional methods. Can assess thinking processes as well as products. Can be used to improve instructional practice. Limitations Main limitation is the amount of time involved. Inefficient when used to assess lower-level skills. Due to subjectivity, reliability tends to be lower. Students of lower abilities may experience frustration

19 Designing Performance Tasks: Step-by-Step Procedure
Step 1: Determine the purpose of the assessment. Step 2: Specify the skills and outcomes along with their respective taxonomic level. Step 3: Specify the performance criteria that will be used to judge student work, and identify observable indicators of those criteria. Step 4: Create an authentic and meaningful context for the task. Step 5: Develop a scoring instrument. Step 6: Generate or select exemplary student responses. Step 7: Revise the task, as necessary.

20 Points to Remember: All lesson plans need to have an assessment.
The assessment must evaluate the objective for the lesson. The assessment is usually informal and formative in nature for most lessons. Summative comes at the end of the chapter or unit. VARIETY helps keep everyone engaged. Informal assessment strategies allow you to diagnose on the spot who understands concepts being taught (Kronowitz, 2008).

21 Formative Assessment:
Refers to what happens on a daily basis in the classroom Provides teachers with information about specific next instructional steps for students Assessment Drives Instruction Students know where they are at instructionally and where they need to go On-going assessment provides continual feedback that helps students progress over time


23 “Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction”
Carol Tomlinson

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