Presentation on theme: "Cheese – les fromages Cheese are categorized as: Hard Semi-hard Soft or cream cheese Where a choice of cheeses is offered, one of the following terms are."— Presentation transcript:
Cheese – les fromages Cheese are categorized as: Hard Semi-hard Soft or cream cheese Where a choice of cheeses is offered, one of the following terms are used: Plateau de fromages Fromages assortis Fromages au choix
Hard cheese Gruyère Emmental Cantal Comté Parmesan
Gruyère is a hard yellow cheese, named after the town of Gruyères in Switzerland, and originated in the cantons of Fribourg, Vaud, Neuchâtel, Jura, and Berne. Before 2001, when Gruyère gained Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) status as a Swiss cheese, some controversy existed whether French cheeses of a similar nature could also be labeled Gruyère (French Gruyère style cheeses include Comté and Beaufort). Gruyère is sweet but slightly salty, with a flavor that varies widely with age. It is often described as creamy and nutty when young, becoming with age more assertive, earthy and complex. When fully aged (five months to a year) it tends to have small cracks which impart a slightly grainy texture.
Emmental or Emmentaler is a yellow, medium-hard cheese that originated in the area around Emmental, in Switzerland. It is one of the cheeses of Switzerland, and is sometimes known as Swiss cheese. While the denomination "Emmentaler Switzerland" is protected, "Emmentaler" is not; as such, Emmentaler of other origin, especially from France and Bavaria, is widely available and even Finland is an exporter of Emmentaler cheese. Emmentaler has a savoury, but not very sharp, taste. Three types of bacteria are used in the production of Emmentaler: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In the late stage of cheese production, P. freudenreichii consumes the lactic acid excreted by the other bacteria, and releases carbon dioxide gas, which slowly forms the bubbles that make holes. Failure to remove CO 2 bubbles during production, due to inconsistent pressing, results in the large holes ("eyes") characteristic of this cheese. Historically, the holes were a sign of imperfection, and until modern times, cheese makers would try to avoid them. Emmentaler cheese is used in a variety of dishes, including some types of pizza.
Cantal cheese is a firm cheese from the Cantal region of France. It is named after the Cantal mountains in the Auvergne region. Cantal obtained its Appellation d'Origine in 1956. One of the oldest cheeses in France, Cantal dates back to the times of the Gauls. It came to prominence when marshal Henri de La Ferté- Senneterre served it at the table of Louis XIV of France. Senneterre is also responsible for the introduction of Saint-Nectaire and Salers.
Comté is a French cheese made from unpasteurized cow's milk in the Franche-Comté region of eastern France. Comté has the highest production of all French AOC cheeses, around 40,000 tonnes annually. The cheese is made in flat circular discs, each between 40 centimetres (16 in) and 70 centimetres (28 in) in diameter, and around 10 centimetres (4 in) in height. Each disc weighs up to 50 kilograms (110 lb). The fat content is around 45%. The rind is usually a dusty- brown colour, and the internal pâte is a pale creamy yellow. The texture is relatively hard and flexible, and the taste is strong and slightly sweet.
Parmigiano-Reggiano also known in English as Parmesan, is a hard, granular cheese, cooked but not pressed, named after the producing areas near Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, and Bologna (all in Emilia-Romagna), and Mantova (in Lombardia), Italy. Under Italian law, only cheese produced in these provinces may be labelled "Parmigiano-Reggiano", while European law classifies the name as a protected designation of origin. Parmigiano is the Italian adjective for Parma. Reggiano is the Italian adjective for Reggio Emilia. The English name for the cheese Parmesan comes from the French name for it. The name Parmesan is also used for cheeses which imitate Parmigiano-Reggiano, with phrases such as "Italian hard cheese" adopted to skirt legal constraints. The closest legitimate Italian cheese to Parmigiano- Reggiano is Grana Padano.
Semi-hard cheese St Paulin Port salut Pont l’évêque Tomme de Savoie
Saint Paulin Saint Paulin is a creamy, mild, semi-soft French cheese made from pasteurized cow's milk, originally made by Trappist monks. It is a buttery cheese, but firm enough for slicing. Saint Paulin is similar to Havarti and Esrom, and is suited to serving as a table or dessert cheese; it is often served with fruit and light wine. Genuine Saint Paulin has an edible yellow-orange rind. It is ripened in a round loaf with slightly protruding sides, and matures in about four weeks
Port Salut is a semi-soft pasteurised cow's milk cheese from Pays de la Loire, France, with a distinctive orange crust and a mild flavour. The cheese is produced in disks approximately 23 cm (9 inches) in diameter, weighing approximately 2 kg (4.4 lb). Though Port Salut has a mild flavour, it sometimes has a strong smell because it is a mature cheese. The smell increases the longer the cheese is kept — this however does not affect its flavour. It can be refrigerated and is best eaten within two weeks of opening. The cheese was developed by Trappist monks during the 19th century at Port-du-Salut Abbey in Entrammes. The monks, many of whom had left France to escape persecution during the French revolution of 1789, learned cheese-making skills as a means of survival and brought those skills back with them upon their return in 1815. The name of their society, "Société Anonyme des Fermiers Réunis" (S.A.F.R.), later became their registered trademark, and is still printed on wheels of Port Salut cheese distributed today.
Pont-l'Évêque is a French cheese, originally manufactured in the area around the commune of Pont-l'Évêque, between Deauville and Lisieux in the Calvados département of Basse-Normandie. It is probably the oldest Norman cheese still in production. Pont-l'Évêque is an uncooked, unpressed cow's-milk cheese, square in shape usually at around 10 cm square and around 3 cm high, weighing 400g. The central pâte is soft, creamy pale yellow in colour with a smooth, fine texture and has a pungent aroma. This is surrounded by a washed rind that is white with a gentle orange- brown coloration. The whole is soft when pressed but lacks elasticity. It is generally ranked alongside Brie, Camembert, and Roquefort as one of the most popular cheeses in France.
Tomme de Savoie is a variety of Tomme cheese from Savoie in the French Alps. It is a mild, semi-firm cow's milk cheese with a beige interior and a thick brownish-grey rind. Tomme de Savoie, like most Tommes, is usually made from the skim milk left over after the cream is used to make butter or richer cheeses. As a result, the cheese has a relatively low fat content (between 20 and 45%). The cheese is made year-round, and typically has a slightly different character depending on whether the cows are fed on winter hay or summer grass. The cheese normally comes in discs approximately 18 centimetres (7.1 in) across, 5–8 centimetres (2.0–3.1 in) in thickness, and weighing between 1 and 2 kilograms (2.2 and 4.4 lb). It is first pressed, and then matured for several months in a traditional cellar, which produces the characteristically thick rind and adds flavor.
Soft or cream cheese Camembert Brie Coulommiers Petit suisse Fromage frais
Brie is a soft cow's milk cheese named after Brie, the French region from which it originated (roughly corresponding to the modern département of Seine-et-Marne). It is pale in color with a slight grayish tinge under a rind of white mold. The whitish moldy rind is typically eaten, the flavor quality of which depends largely upon the ingredients used and its manufacturing environment.
Coulommiers is a cheese from Coulommiers in the Seine- et-Marne department of France, a lesser-known cousin of Brie, although it has been produced for longer. It is made from cow's milk, and is usually in the shape of a disc with white, bloomy, edible Penicillium candidum rind. It is smaller and thicker than Brie and with a nuttier flavour, but otherwise has the same characteristics, with a similar buttery colour and supple texture. It is farmer-made or industrially produced. The industrial version lacks the depth of an unpasteurized cheese; artisanal or "farmhouse" unpasteurised Coulommiers has some reddish blush in parts of the rind. The period of ripening when made of pasteurised whole milk is about four to six weeks. The fat content is 40 per cent.
Roquefort is a sheep milk blue cheese from the south of France, and together with Stilton and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best known blue-cheeses. Though similar cheeses are produced elsewhere, European law dictates that only those cheeses aged in the natural Combalou caves of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon may bear the name Roquefort, as it is a recognised geographical indication, or has a protected designation of origin. The cheese is white, tangy, crumbly and slightly moist, with distinctive veins of green mold. It has characteristic odor and flavor with a notable taste of butyric acid; the green veins provide a sharp tang. The overall flavor sensation begins slightly mild, then waxes sweet, then smoky, and fades to a salty finish. It has no rind; the exterior is edible and slightly salty. A typical wheel of Roquefort weighs between 2.5 and 3 kilograms (5.5 and 6.6 pounds), and is about 10 cm (4 inches) thick. Each kilogram of finished cheese requires about 4.5 litres (1.18 gallons) of milk to produce.
Bleu de Bresse is a blue cheese that was first made in the Bresse area of France following World War II. Made from whole milk, it has a firm, edible coating which is characteristically white in color and has an aroma of mushrooms. Its creamy interior, similar in texture to Brie, contains patches of blue mold. It is shaped into cylindrical rounds weighing from 125 to 500 grams.
Bleu d'Auvergne is a French blue cheese, named for its place of origin in the Auvergne region of south-central France. It is made from cow's milk, and is one of the cheeses granted the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée from the French government. Bleu d'Auvergne is of relatively recent origin, discovered in the mid-1850s by a French cheesemaker named Antoine Roussel. Roussel noted that the occurrence of blue molds on his curd resulted in an agreeable taste, and conducted experiments to determine how veins of such mold could be induced. After several failed tests, Roussel discovered that the application of rye breadmold created the veining, and that pricking the curd with a needle provided increased aeration. It allowed the mold to enter the curd and encouraged its growth. Subsequently, his discovery and techniques spread throughout the region. Today, bleu d'Auvergne is prepared via mechanical needling processes. It is then aged for approximately four weeks in cool, wet cellars before distribution, a relatively short period for blue cheeses.
Yoghurts Yaourt may also be served as a cheese. There is: Yaourt nature Yaourt parfumé The leading commercial names in the manufacture of yoghurts is: Chambourcy Danone Gervais The choice of flavours is increasingly developing: yaourt aux framboise / yaourt aux fraise
Cheese dishes Quiche Lorraine Croque-monsieur Soufflé au fromage Omelette au fromage Spaghetti au parmesan Fondue savoyarde Crèpe au fromage Fromage blanc à la crème