Presentation on theme: "Dairy Products The two most popular items from dairy cattle: milk and cheese."— Presentation transcript:
Dairy Products The two most popular items from dairy cattle: milk and cheese
Milk Flavor is the key to popularity. Judging begins on the farm (at the point of production) Continues in the commercial dairy plant at various check points then as a finished product.
Distinguishing Tastes Four primary tastes: –Sweet-produced by sugar; noted at tip of the tongue –Sour-lactic acid or tart apple; along sides of tongue –Salt-common salt; sides and tip of tongue –Bitter-quinine; base of tongue
Distinguishing Odor Centers are in the uppermost region of the nasal cavity. Note by inhaling slowly and deeply before and after you put the sample in your mouth.
Factors Affecting a Judge Illness ‘Memory” taste Personal practices-tobacco, it dulls the senses Strongly scented soaps, lotion, hair products, or perfumes. Strong foods-onions, chili, chewing gum.
Judging Milk Flavors are caused by five factors: –health of cow –feeds consumed by the cow –bacteriological action –chemical changes –absorption of foreign flavors after the milk is drawn
Judging Milk Bitter –strong feeds or weeds which may carry through to the milk –conditions present in milk from cows in late lactating –bacterial growth, but normally won’t happen unless several days of warm temperatures –sometimes confused with rancid milk; but only detected by taste, not smell.
Judging Milk Cooked –results from heating Feed –green grass, silage, turnips, and alfalfa can carry through to milk –take cows off feeds at least 4 hours before milking
Judging Milk Flat (watery) –tasteless flavor –normal milk partially diluted in water Foreign –any objectionable flavor like fly spray, paint, oil, kerosene, etc. –Sanitizes also, if left on equipment may be absorbed –Medicine
Judging Milk Garlic/Onion –when cows eat garlic, onions, leeks –distinctive odor and taste High Acid –bacterial growth Malty –not common, but if milk is not commonly cooled it may occur.
Judging Milk Metallic –rough and puckery on mouth and tongue –caused when milk comes into contacts with corrodible metal Musty –musty or moldy hay Salty –may come from milk infested with mastitis
Judging Milk Oxidized –pungent flavor –“Papery” or cardboard, sunlight, and talloway –One of the most troublesome milk flavors Rancid –stale fat flavor; not encountered in extreme form in fresh milk –has odor
Judging Milk Unclean –seldom found except in pasteurized milk that has been stored too long –accompanies bitter flavor –may be caused by bacteria Weedy –bitter characteristic –ragweed, bitterweed, peppergrass
Cheese Identification Blue –blue-vein mold ripened variety –tangy peppery flavor after aging 2-6 mo. –Texture is semisoft, pasty, crumbly. Brick –semisoft to medium firm elastic texture ripened variety –mild to moderately sharp flavor, aged 2-4 mo.. –Small mechanical openings; creamy yellow
Cheese Brie –Mild to pungent flavor after aging 4-8 weeks. –Soft and smooth texture –creamy yellow interior with an edible thin, brown and white crust
Cheese Cheddar (mild) –mild to slightly developed nut-like cheddar flavor –aged 2-3 mo.. –firm and smooth with some mechanical openings –white to medium yellow-orange Cheddar (sharp) –sharp nut-like flavor; aged 8-12 mo.. –Smooth and waxy with some openings
Cheese Colby –mild to mellow flavor –aged 1-3 mo.. –softer and more open than cheddar with numerous irregular openings –white to medium yellow-orange
Cheese Cream –soft unripened made from the cream of the cow’s milk –mild, acid flavor not aged –soft and smooth; white to light cream
Cheese Gouda –made from whole or partly skimmed milk –mellow, nut-like flavor; aged 2-6 mo.. –Semisoft to firm, smooth, small irregular openings –creamy yellow or medium yellow-orange –may have a red wax coating –cannonball or oval shape
Cheese Monterey (Jack) –mild to mellow flavor; aged 1-3 mo.. –Soft to semisoft; small openings evenly dispersed –white to light cream Mozzarella –unripened made from whole or partly skimmed milk –mild, delicate flavor; not aged –slightly firm and plastic; creamy white
Cheese Munster –mild to mellow flavor; aged 1-8 weeks –semisoft with small openings throughout –creamy white interior with a yellow tan surface Provolone –mellow to sharp flavor with smoky and salty overtones; aged 2-12 mo.. –Firm and smooth; light creamy interior with a light brown or golden surface.
Cheese Ricotta –unripened made from whole or partly skimmed milk or whey –sweet, nut-like flavor; not aged –soft and may have a grainy consistency –white Swiss –sweet, nut-like flavor; aged 3-9 mo... –Firm and smooth with medium to large round eyes; light yellow