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Eggs, Dairy, and Cheese Chapter 18. Objectives Define the terms eggs and dairy Identify the parts of an egg List egg sizes and the weight of the average.

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Presentation on theme: "Eggs, Dairy, and Cheese Chapter 18. Objectives Define the terms eggs and dairy Identify the parts of an egg List egg sizes and the weight of the average."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eggs, Dairy, and Cheese Chapter 18

2 Objectives Define the terms eggs and dairy Identify the parts of an egg List egg sizes and the weight of the average egg Identify the most commonly used dairy products

3 Objectives (contd.) Summarize the butterfat content of dairy products Explain the process for making butter List the main varieties of cheese Review the proper procedures for purchasing and storing different egg and dairy products

4 Eggs A culinary staple with many uses Packed with protein The standard to which other protein sources are measured Combine with other staples or stand alone equally well

5 Parts of the Egg Shell (porous covering protects egg) Membranes –Thin layers of protein fibers that cling to shell and provide barrier against bacteria Albumen –The egg white, composed mostly of water Yolk (contains most of the protein)

6 18.1 The composition of an egg

7 Buying and Storing Eggs are inspected to determine quality Graded as AA, A, B and C –Also classified as weight per dozen Should be stored below 40° F Make sure eggs are not cracked Expiration dates are four to five weeks after packaging

8 Dairy More than 30 main products are made from milk The most commonly used dairy products include: –Milk, butter, casein (milk protein), yogurt, gelato, and ice cream –Other ethnic forms of dairy products

9 Buying and Storing The U.S. has federal standards for butterfat content of dairy products Nondairy milk includes soy milk, rice milk, and milk made from oat and coconut products Nonbovine milk includes goat milk, sheeps milk, and buffalo milk

10 Cultured Dairy Products Buttermilk, sour cream, or yogurt –Milk or cream thickened by heat or sharpened by bacterial cultures –Can be used as the basis for dips and dressings –Can be used in cake batters or bread dough

11 Using Cultured Dairy Products in Cooking Difficult to use in cooking because they curdle when overheated –Must never be boiled –Add them at the end of cooking time –Or, use one teaspoon of cornstarch to stabilize

12 Using Cultured Dairy Products in Cooking (contd.) Buttermilk –Liquid by-product of butter making –Today, a culture is added; gives acidic tang Clotted cream –Slowly heating and cooling milk to thicken Kaymak (Kaimaki, Eishta) –Middle eastern sheeps milk cooked cream

13 Using Cultured Dairy Products in Cooking (contd.) Crème fraiche –Cultured cream with high fat content Smatana –Sour cream mixed with sweet cream Sour cream –Homogenized cream with bacterial culture French-style yogurt (a set yogurt)

14 Using Cultured Dairy Products in Cooking (contd.) Greek sheeps yogurt –Sweet flavor and higher fat content Strained Yogurt –Concentrated yogurt with some of the watery whey removed Ricotta –A neutral cheese made by cooking twice

15 Using Cultured Dairy Products in Cooking (contd.) Mascarpone –A very rich Italian cream cheese Cottage cheese –Cheese curd product with mild flavor Fromage frais –Unripened cheese beaten until it is smooth and creamy

16 Butter Butter is the fat of the milk –Made by beating cream until it thickens and separates –Butter made from cows milk the norm in most countries Heat alters the form and flavor of butter

17 Butter Production Pasteurized cream placed in large vats and churned repeatedly –Fat particles pull together and solidify –Buttermilk is left over, then drawn off –Butter churned until it forms a solid mass Butter flavor varies according to animal and time of year

18 Buying and Storing Two types of butter –Sweet cream butter Made from pasteurized cream that is placed in a tank at low temperature before churning –Lactic butter Cream is combined with lactic acid culture Both types may be salted or unsalted –Salted butter contains at least 3% salt

19 Cheese It takes 11 pounds of milk to make one pound of cheese More than 1,500 varieties exist –France alone produces 500 varieties Aging cheese more than 60 days destroys bacteria –Or, can be made from pasteurized milk

20 Cheese Production Each cheese has unique procedure Certain steps are common to most –Pasteurizing the milk –Adding starter cultures –Separating curds and whey –Salting and flavoring the curds –Processing into molds and curing

21 18.13c Taking the temperature of milk in a vat 18.13d Splitting the cheese curds in two while hanging in cheesecloth over whey, before being placed in their mold

22 Categories of Cheese Firm (or hard) cheeses –Have been cooked and pressed Soft cheeses –Surface-ripened soft cheeses –Interior-ripened soft cheeses Semi-firm cheeses –Uncooked, pressed cheeses

23 Categories of Cheese (contd.) Pasta filata cheeses –Unripened, stretched-curd cheeses Blue-veined (blue) cheeses Process cheeses Cheese substitutes –Made using the casein element in milk Goats milk cheeses

24 Buying and Storing Check expiration date and avoid cheese that has been stored at room temperature Soft cheeses should have soft crust, without cracks Semi-firm and firm cheese should be uniformly colored

25 Buying and Storing (contd.) Only firm cheeses are suitable for grating –Grated cheese remains fresh for a week in the refrigerator Shelf-life of cheeses is determined by their moisture content Store in warmest part of the refrigerator wrapped in wax paper or aluminum foil

26 Summary Eggs are a high protein culinary staple Eggs are inspected and graded Cultured dairy products are very sensitive to heating Butter is made by beating cream until it thickens and separates into fat (butter) and buttermilk

27 Summary (contd.) There are many varieties of cheese Cheeses are categorized as firm (hard), soft, semi-firm, pasta filata, blue, process, goats milk, and cheese substitutes The shelf life of cheeses varies according to their moisture content


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