Presentation on theme: "What is Wine What is Wine? “To Serve with Knowledge & Pour with Skill” copyright 2002 The Wine Society of Texas all rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:
What is Wine What is Wine? “To Serve with Knowledge & Pour with Skill” copyright 2002 The Wine Society of Texas all rights reserved
Wine - The Definition Wine is the fermented juice of any fruit or vegetable. You can make wine from almost any organic substance that contains sugar and water typically found in fruits and vegetables. Five basic types of wine are: Red Wine White Wine Rose Wine Sparkling Wine - carbonated Fortified Wine - high alcohol content –Sherry - Spanish style wine (amber to brown) can be made sweet or not sweet. –Port - Sweet red wine originally from Portugal –Madeira - from Madeira Islands made from cooked grapes & aged –Marsala - Italian wine made from concentrated grape juice.
Why use grapes to make wine? Winemaking is the art of making wine. It involves working with grape juice (natural sugars, water, grape solids) and yeast to achieve a balance of wine qualities: sweetness acidity alcohol content Why grapes? Wine from grapes possesses a good combination of these qualities. l While natural occurring yeast on the grapes will work, winemakers tend to use developed strains of yeast today.
How is wine made? It starts in the vineyard at harvest: It is important to wait until the grapes reach the proper maturity for the varietal of grape & style of wine being made. As the grapes ripen, the sugar level increases and the acidity decreases. The sugar level is measured in units of “Brix”; wine grapes are usually harvested at a Brix of 22 to 28. Ripening will depend on many factors, such as the temperature, amount of sun and rainfall, availability of nutrients. n The grapes can be harvested manually or by mechanical pickers. Manually picked grapes are typically higher quality. Manual picking Mechanical picking
How is wine made? After harvesting: The grapes are transported to the winery where they undergo destemming and crushing. There are a variety of presses that are used to produce the juice, which is called “must”. The sugar in the wine is used by the yeast to produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas, thus making wine. n The type of yeast can affect the qualities of the wine as will other compounds in the wine - some naturally occurring and some that are byproducts of the winemaking process. Crusher Small Bladder Press Large Rotary Press
How is wine made? Fermentation and Aging: After crushing and pressing the must is transferred to large, refrigerated stainless steel tanks where it is fermented to produce wine. Once fermentation is complete, the wine can be transferred to oak barrels for aging for 6 to 24 months. But, not all wine is oak aged. The barrels are usually made from either French or American Oak, which give differing qualities to the wine. Some wine is aged in old barrels and some in new to produce different characteristics, as well. The wine maker will then blend the various lots of wine to produce a finished wine ready for bottling. Fermentation Tanks Barrel filling Barrel aging Active Yeast Cells
How is wine made? Bottling and Cellaring: After the wine is complete it is transferred to bottles. Most wine is consumed within three years of bottling. But some fine wines gain added flavor and bouquet with time in the bottle if it is stored at 50 to 60 F. But, humidity is also important so that the corks do not dry out, which spoils the wine. The wines commonly aged in the bottle are: –Cabernet Sauvignon (Red) –Pinot Noir (Red) –Chardonnay (White) –Champagne (White Sparkling) –Port –Sherry Bottling line Bottles being filled Large Commercial Cellar Small in-home cellar
Differences in making red & white wine White Wine: Grapes for white wine are harvested and pressed. The must is fermented in stainless steel tanks. Some white wines, such as Chardonnay, is aged in oak barrels. The wine is bottled Most white wines are not bottle aged but consumed with in 3 years of bottling. n However, an exception is particularly fine wines made from Chardonnay and Champagne. Red Wine: Grapes for red wine are harvested, crushed. The must is left with the skins during fermentation to produce the red color. Red wine is commonly aged in oak barrels for 6 to 24 months. The wine is bottled. Many red wines are ready to drink after bottling. n However, some red wines, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, will benefit with some bottle age.
Making blush & sparkling wines Blush Wine: Red grapes are harvested for Rose or Blush wine. Before fermentation the must is left with the skin for a short time. The must is fermented in stainless steel tanks. If a sweet wine is desired then the fermentation is stopped before all of the sugar is consumed. The wine is bottled n Blush wines are not commonly bottle aged but consumed within 3 years of bottling. Champagne (Sparking) Wine: Grapes for sparking wine are harvested and pressed. It is fermented like a white wine. More sugar and yeast is added to the wine. The wine is bottled. The additional sugar and yeast produce carbon dioxide, which carbonates the wine. The second fermentation is stopped. n Most sparkling wines are made to drink young. But, fine Champagne will benefit with additional bottle age.
Making fortified wine Fortified Wine: Grapes for fortified wines are harvested like for other wines. Depending on the type of wine, the must may be handled in different ways to intensify the flavor before and during fermentation. Most fortified wines have an addition of alcohol (brandy) to stop fermentation and increase the alcohol content. Fortified wine maybe aged in oak barrels before bottling. n Many fortified wines will benefit with bottle age.
Summary l Wine grapes are harvested either manually or mechanically. l Manually harvested grapes are usually preferred. l Wine can be made from many fruits and vegetables. l However, wine from grapes can possess a good balance of three important qualities: sweetness, acidity and alcohol. l After harvesting, grapes are destemmed, crushed (or pressed) to produce the juice, referred to as “must”. l The must is fermented and sometimes aged in oak to add flavor and aroma in some wines before bottling. Sparkling wines such as Champagne are made by imposing a secondary fermentation in the bottle to produce carbonation. l Most wine is made to be consumed within 3 years of production. l However, some fine wines may gain special qualities by further bottle aging.