us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 3 EGGS Are an essential kitchen ingredient as they can be utilised in a number of ways. They are perfect cooked & eaten on their own or as part of breakfast, lunch or as a snack. They are also incorporated into baking, desserts, pastry, pasta & noodles. They can be used as a binding agent in stuffing, forcemeats, mayonnaise & other sauces as well as a cooking aid such as coating food for frying, glazing etc. Eggs are a nutritious & affordable food source. In NZ we use predominantly hens eggs although both duck & quail eggs may also be utilised.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 5 Ostrich Eggs The largest egg in the world (equivalent to 24 hens eggs). Eggs weigh 3-6 pounds Can make an omelette for 10 people & take 45 minutes to hard boil. Shell is about 1 / 8 inch thick & therefore good for carving & painting
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 6 The Structure of an Egg Shell Membranes Germinal Disc Chalazae Thick White Thin White Air Cell Yolk Yolk Membrane
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 7 SHELL the first line of defence against the entry of bacteria can be brown or white (depends on the breed of hen) – nutritional value is the same approximately 8000 to 10,000 tiny pores allow moisture, gases & smells to penetrate through
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 8 SHELL MEMBRANES there are two membranes on the inside of the shell one membrane sticks to the shell & one surrounds the white (albumen) the second line of defence against bacteria composed of thin layers of protein fibres
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 9 GERMINAL DISC appears as a slight depression on the surface of the yolk the entry for the fertilisation of the egg (commercially produced eggs are NOT fertile)
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 10 EGG WHITE there are two layers: thin white & thick white mostly made of water with high quality protein & some minerals represents 2 / 3 of the eggs weight (without shell) when a fresh egg is broken, the thick white (a jelly- like substance) stands up firmly around the yolk the thin white surrounds the thick white and is more watery
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 11 CHALAZA a pair of spiral bands that anchor the yolk in the centre of the thick white the fresher the egg the more prominent the chalazas unnoticeable when the egg is cooked
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 12 YOLK MEMBRANE (VITELLINE MEMBRANE) surrounds and holds the yolk when pierced, the yolk breaks the fresher the egg the stronger the membrane
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 13 YOLK the eggs major source of vitamins and minerals, including protein and essential fatty acids represents 1 / 3 of the eggs weight (without shell) yolk colour ranges from light yellow to deep orange, depending on the hens food (diet)
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 14 AIR CELL forms at the wide (blunt) end of the egg as it cools after being laid the fresher the egg the smaller the air cell
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 15 QUALITY POINTS FOR EGGS The eggshell should be clean, well-shaped, strong and slightly rough When broken there should be a high proportion of thick white to thin white Yolk should be in the centre, firm, round and of good colour
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 16 QUALITY POINTS FOR EGGS Due to changes in the egg over time, the chalazae break causing the yolk to move off centre and the thick white starts to break down becoming thinner. The air cell becomes larger due to evaporation of moisture from the egg.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 17 Quality Changes in Eggs Over Time Fresh Egg Centred Yolk Stale Egg Off Centre Yolk Thick white Thin white
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 18 Quality Changes in Eggs Over Time Fresh Egg, Opened Beginning to Stale Egg, Opened Stale Egg, Opened
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 19 Common Methods for Cooking Eggs We are going to look at three common methods of cooking eggs: boiling poaching frying
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 20 BOILING Is the cooking of food that is covered with a liquid at 100°C. There are two methods for boiling: 1. placing the food into cold liquid, bringing it up to boiling point and then simmering the food for the duration of cooking 2. placing the food into boiling liquid, bringing it back to boiling point & then simmering for the duration of cooking
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 21 Cooking times for boiled eggs: Boiled eggs are cooked in the shell Soft-Boiled 3 – 5 minutes Medium: 5 – 7 minutes Hard-Boiled 8 – 10 minutes
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 22 For boiled eggs there are quality requirements to ensure that the eggs are cooked properly: no presence of a dark grey-green coating around the yolk; this is an indication the egg has been over-cooked the white should be set, not hard the yolk should be set to desired consistency, solid for hard-boiled & starting to thicken, but not hard, for soft-boiled
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 23 POACHING Is cooking food in a liquid maintained between 93°C and 98°C (just under boiling point). Tip: break individual eggs into a saucer, and gently slide into the simmering water. This will also help to prevent the eggs from breaking up.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 24 Poaching For poached eggs, always use the freshest eggs available; the thick albumen will hold its shape better around the yolk than older eggs. Fill a pan with approximate depth of 8cm of water. Place a small amount of vinegar into the water (approx. 15ml [1T]), which helps the proteins in the egg to coagulate faster by preventing the egg white from spreading. bring the poaching liquid to a boil & then reduce to a simmer before adding the eggs (bubbles should not break the surface).
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 25 FRYING (shallow) To cook food in direct contact with hot oil, butter or fat.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 26 Frying Break eggs & gently slip into the pan. Immediately reduce heat to low Cook slowly until whites are completely set & yolks begin to thicken but are not hard. Turn eggs gently to cook both sides or add a small amount of water & cover with lid to cook tops of eggs.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 27 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS - EGGS 1. Name two quality point of a fresh egg. 2. How long does it take to boil a hard-boiled egg? 3. Why should you not store eggs near strong smelling items such as onions or garlic? 4. What should be added to the water to assist in the setting of the egg white? 5. What temperature should eggs be poached at?
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 28 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS - EGGS 1. Name two quality point of a fresh egg. high proportion of thick white to thin white high sitting, strong egg yolk small air cell clean, unbroken shell fresh smell 2. How long does it take to boil a hard-boiled egg? 8 – 10 minutes 3. Why should you not store eggs near strong smelling items such as onions or garlic? As the egg shell is porous, odours can penetrate through & taint the egg. 4. What should be added to the water to assist in the setting of the egg white? A small amount of vinegar. 5. What temperature should eggs be poached at? 93 - 98°C
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 29 CHEESE Is derived from the milk of animals usually cows, goats & sheep. Takes approximately 10 litres of milk to yield 1kg cheese Basically cheese is produced in this way: 1. The milk is soured by the addition of a bacteria culture. 2. Rennet is added which causes the protein (casein) in milk to coagulate (curdle) forming a separation in the curds (semi-solids) & the whey (liquid). 3. The curds are warmed, stirred & allowed to settle so that they whey may be drained off. 4. The curds are broken up by grinding, then salt is added & they are pressed into specially shaped moulds. 5. Once a skin or rind has formed & the cheese is set, they are removed from the moulds & placed into special storage to ripen to the desired maturity. This allows the cheese to develop its distinctive flavouring.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 30 Cheese The process of making cheese varies for each type & this gives each cheese its own distinctive characteristic. These differences depend on the following variations in the cheese-making process: ripening time subjection of the cheese to different temperatures e.g.. cooking the addition or reduction of fat the addition of bacteria cultures the addition of yeasts the addition of moulds the ripening & curing process
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 31 FRESH CHEESE After the curds & whey have been separated, the whey is drained. The curds are salted, mixed & some are pressed into moulds. Fresh cheeses are uncooked & unripened. They must be eaten within a short timeframe after manufacture. Some examples of fresh cheese are: Bocconcini Cottage Cheese Cream Cheese Feta Mascarpone Ricotta
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 32 SOFT WHITE RIND CHEESE Are neither cooked nor pressed but are shaped in moulds as they drain. Are exposed to an edible bacteria, either by spraying or dipping, which ripens the cheese from the outside in & this produces the smooth velvety white rind. The texture ranges from semi-soft to creamy & spreadable. Some examples of soft white rind cheese are: Aorangi Brie Camembert
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 33 SEMI-SOFT CHEESE Are pressed to expel more whey & this produces a more rubbery texture. May be cooked or uncooked & some (Edam & Gouda) are sealed with a coloured wax. Have a sliceable, yet soft consistency Examples of semi-soft cheese include: Edam Young Gouda Havarti Raclette Port Salut
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 34 SEMI-HARD CHEESES Are cooked, pressed & ripened although not as long as hard cheeses. Moisture level is relatively low & their texture is firm but not crumbly. Examples of semi-hard cheeses include: Aged Gouda Gruyere Cheddar Emmentale
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 35 HARD CHEESE Are cooked at high temperatures, cut, pressed & aged for at least two years. The longer the cheese is held under pressure, the harder, drier & more intense the flavour becomes. Hard cheeses are generally used for grating. Examples of hard cheeses include: Parmesan Pecorino Romano
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 36 BLUE VEIN CHEESE Have the mould penicillin added to the milk. During the aging process the cheese is punctured with holes to ensure the penicillin will grow through to the centre of the cheese & the results are veins of flavoursome blue- green mould throughout the cheese. Examples of blue vein cheeses include: Kikorangi Roquefort Stilton
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 37 STRETCH CURD CHEESE The special technique of kneading & stretching the curds, after a hot whey bath, give these cheese their pliable consistency. An example of stretch curd cheese is: Mozzarella
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 38 STORAGE OF CHEESE If stored incorrectly cheese will not last. Therefore it is important to remember these points: All cheese should be wrapped & stored in the refrigerator. Fresh & soft white rind cheese should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator. Hard, semi-hard & semi-soft cheese should be stored in the cheese compartment (warmest area) of the refrigerator. To prevent drying out, cut cheeses should have their cut surface wrapped with waxed paper, greaseproof paper of foil. The rind should not be wrapped, but allowed to breathe. If surface mould appears on hard, semi-hard or semi-soft cheese simply cut away that portion (with a little extra). If mould appears on fresh or soft rind cheeses, throw it out.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 39 QUALITY INDICATORS FOR CHEESE There should be no sign of mildew on the rind of the cheese, as this indicates damp storage conditions. When cut the cheese should not give off an over-strong aroma for the cheese type. There should be no indication of ammonia. Semi-hard & blue vein cheese should not appear dry when cut. Soft white rind cheeses should not appear runny when cut.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 40 QUALITY POINTS FOR CHEESE No Mould on skin/rind Consistency correct for cheese type
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 41 FETA A classic Greek cheese traditionally made from sheep or goats milk. It is a white, crumbly rindless cheese commonly found pressed into square cakes. It is cured & stored in its own salty whey brine & has a rich tangy flavour. It ranges in texture from dry to semi-dry.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 42 Feta Common uses include: served as a snack with olives, bread & wine many Greek recipes such as Spanokapita crumbled or cut into small cubes & added to salads
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 44 MASCARPONE Made from the heavy cream of cows milk, curdled with the addition of citric acid & set to strain through fine cloth. Is pale ivory in colour, soft & delicately smooth in texture & sweet, rich & cream-like in flavour.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 45 Mascarpone Common uses include: Tiramisu, an Italian dessert great alternative to cream with berries & other fruits used in savoury dishes also
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 47 RICOTTA Unlike other cheeses, ricotta is made from the whey rather than the curds of the milk. In some cases it is produced from a combination of the whey & whole milk. It is a white, moist cheese with a crumbly texture & a creamy, delicate & slightly sweet taste.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 48 Ricotta Common uses include: sauces for pasta a stuffing for some shaped pasta e.g.. ravioli, cannelloni mixed in salads used in the production of cheesecakes
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 49 COTTAGE CHEESE Has a moist, smooth, slightly grainy texture, with a mild flavour. This is due to the process of washing the curds to remove most of the cheeses natural acidity.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 50 Cottage Cheese Common uses include: can be mixed in salads used as an accompaniment with fruit as a dip in desserts
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 51 BOCCONCINI Small balls of fresh mozzarella cheese usually found packaged in whey or water. This should have a moist, springy, yielding texture & are able to slice cleanly.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 52 Bocconcini Common uses include: served as an antipasto, often sliced & marinated or served with slices of tomato & basil.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 53 CREAM CHEESE Is a soft, spreadable unripened cheese with a smooth, creamy texture. It is mildly tangy in flavour.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 54 Cream Cheese Common uses include: an ingredient in cheesecakes used in other desserts as a sandwich spread made into dips
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 55 SOFT WHITE RIND CHEESES Aorangi, Brie & Camembert All of these cheeses have a thin white velvety rind & creamy pale yellow interior. AorangiBrieCamembert
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 56 Soft White Rind Cheeses Aorangi, Brie & Camembert Common uses include: cheese boards salads in cooking as a melting cheese over, or inside of, an item AorangiBrieCamembert
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 57 SEMI-SOFT CHEESE Edam Found packaged in yellow or red wax coating covering with thin rind. Edam is a creamy yellow, mild, slightly salty cheese with a faint nutty flavour
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 58 Edam Common uses include: cheese boards also used in cooking
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 59 SEMI-SOFT CHEESE Young Gouda Found packaged in yellow or red wax coating covering the thin rind, sometimes left unwaxed. Has a mild nutty flavour, which intensifies with age; it is creamier than Edam due to its higher fat content & has a pale yellow interior that is dotted with a few tiny holes.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 60 Young Gouda Common uses include: fondue cheese boards sandwiches good for grating (aged)
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 61 SEMI-SOFT CHEESE Havarti Has small irregular holes & is pale yellow in colour. The flavour of a young havarti is mild yet tangy & the flavour intensifies with age. It has a thin washed rind that is sometimes waxed.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 62 Havarti Common uses include: cheese boards sandwiches cooking
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 63 SEMI-SOFT CHEESE Raclette Has a pale ivory to light yellow interior & a dark beige, brushed, natural rind. The taste when melted is creamy & fruity.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 64 Raclette Traditional use for raclette: in a dish also named raclette, where the cheese is melted & served with boiled potatoes, gherkins, dark bread & sometimes cooked & cured meats.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 65 SEMI-SOFT CHEESE Port Salut Has a smooth creamy texture & an orange coloured rind that is created by washing the rind in a brine solution with a specific bacteria. It has a mild, slightly piquant savoury flavour & sharp aroma.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 66 Port Salut Common uses include: cheese boards good melting cheese ideal with fruit
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 67 SEMI-HARD CHEESE Aged Gouda See, young Gouda
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 68 SEMI-HARD CHEESE Gruyere Has a natural washed golden brown rind & a pale yellow interior with medium sized holes. Has a rich, sweet, nutty flavour that is also slightly fruity.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 69 Gruyere Common uses include: has great melt-ability making it ideal for fondue, sauces & soups cheese boards gratins quiches sandwiches
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 70 SEMI-HARD CHEESE Cheddar Is a firm, close-grained cheese with a creamy- yellow interior & natural oily rind. The flavour is rich, sharp & tangy, but not bitter. When aged the flavour intensifies & takes on a nutty taste.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 71 Cheddar Common uses include: cheese boards sauces & soups sandwiches
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 72 SEMI-HARD CHEESE Emmentale Has a light brown rind & pale yellow interior with large shiny holes. Its flavour is nutty, sweet & mellow.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 73 Emmentale Common uses include: cheese boards cooking grating
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 74 HARD CHEESE Parmesan Has a hard, pale golden rind with straw yellow coloured interior, which is also hard & crumbly. The flavour is rich & sharp with a buttery, nutty taste.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 75 Parmesan Common uses include grating or shredding to have with: traditional accompaniment to pasta salads risotto pizza soups gratins
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 76 HARD CHEESE Pecorino Romano Is derived from the Italian word for sheep pecora, as the cheese is made from sheep's milk, & romano meaning it was first made in the region of Rome. Has a yellow natural rind that is rubbed with oil or sometimes blackened & the interior is whitish-yellow. Has a sharp, robust, salty flavour that is slightly richer than Parmesan.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 77 Pecorino Romano Common uses include: as for Parmesan
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 78 BLUE VEIN CHEESE Kikorangi Has a rich golden colour & creamy, soft, smooth texture, marbled with dense blue veins. Mildly pungent, its flavour develops as it ages to create a smoother, more refined taste.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 79 Kikorangi Common uses include: cheese board in cooking in some desserts
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 80 BLUE VEIN CHEESE Roquefort Made from sheep's milk Is aged naturally in the limestone caves of Cameblou, near the village Roquefort-sur-Soulzon in France. The unique flavour of this cheese comes from the milk, the particular strain of mould (penicillium roqueforti) & the ripening in the caves.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 81 BLUE VEIN CHEESE Roquefort Has a white, faintly shiny exterior & smooth, slightly crumbly, creamy white interior with numerous blue veins. Its flavour is strong, creamy, slightly salty & spicy with a strong aroma.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 82 Roquefort Common uses include: salad dressings canapés cheese boards traditionally served with port at the end of a meal
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 83 BLUE VEIN CHEESE Stilton Made from cows milk, with a crusty brownish rind & pale yellow interior with numerous blue-green veins. Its texture is rich & creamy, but slightly crumbly, with a mellow yet pungent flavour.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 84 Stilton Common uses include: traditionally served on its own with a glass of vintage port, or accompanied with fruit also.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 85 STRETCH CURD CHEESES Mozzarella There are commonly two types of mozzarella: fresh mozzarella – has a smooth white interior & is sold in various sized balls & is stored in water. string (pizza) mozzarella – pale yellow with a smooth texture Both have a delicate, milky flavour & pliable consistency.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 86 Mozzarella Common uses for fresh include: served with slices of tomato, fresh basil & olive oil salads pasta Common uses for string include: melted on pizza sandwiches
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 87 CHEESE NAME COLOURTASTE TEXTURE SMELL APPEARANCE
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 88 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS - CHEESE 1. Name one hard cheese. 2. Name one soft white rind cheese. 3. What classification does Stilton cheese belong to? 4. What is the traditional cheese served with pasta? 5. Name a cheese that can be uses as an ingredient in cheesecake.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 89 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS - CHEESE 1. Name one hard cheese. Parmesan Pecorino Romano 2. Name one soft white rind cheese. Aorangi Camembert Brie 3. What classification does Stilton cheese belong to? Blue Vein 4. What is the traditional cheese served with pasta? Parmesan or Pecorino Romano 5. Name a cheese that can be uses as an ingredient in cheesecake. Ricotta Cream Cheese Mascarpone
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese90 u/s 19770 Prepare and present egg and cheese dishes in the hospitality industry. Level 1 Credit 2
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 91 1. When breaking a whole egg, describe the main quality characteristics of the egg yolk & egg white.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 92 2. Why should you not store eggs with foods that have a strong odour (i.e. garlic or onions)
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 93 3. Explain in short steps the production of a poached egg.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 94 4. What should you do if you discover mould on Camembert?
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 95 5. List two examples of blue vein cheese.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 96 6. Give one example of a good melting cheese for cooking.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 97 COMMON ASSESSMENT TASK (CAT) 1. When breaking a whole egg, describe the main quality characteristics of the egg yolk and egg white. 2. Why should you not store eggs with foods that have a strong odour (i.e.. garlic or onions) 3. Explain in short steps the production of a poached egg. 4. What should you do if you discover mould on Camembert? 5. List two examples o blue vein cheese. 6. Give one example of a good melting cheese for cooking.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 98 COMMON ASSESSMENT TASK (CAT) 1. When breaking a whole egg, describe the main quality characteristics of the egg yolk and egg white. Firm round yolk of good even colour High proportion of thick white to thin white 2. Why should you not store eggs with foods that have a strong odour (i.e.. garlic or onions) The shells are porous & absorb odours into the egg tainting the flavour 3. Explain in short steps the production of a poached egg. Carefully break the egg & place into a shallow pan containing at least 8cm of water gently simmering with a little vinegar. Simmer for at least 2-3 minutes. Remove carefully with a perforated spoon.
us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese 99 COMMON ASSESSMENT TASK (CAT) 4. What should you do if you discover mould on Camembert? Discard as it is spoiled 5. List two examples of blue vein cheese. Examples may include: Stilton Roquefort Kikorangi 6. Give one example of a good melting cheese for cooking. Examples may include: Cheddar Gruyere etc