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Soft ripened cheeses Queso Diego Tuesday, October 16, 2012 Laurie Gerber.

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Presentation on theme: "Soft ripened cheeses Queso Diego Tuesday, October 16, 2012 Laurie Gerber."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soft ripened cheeses Queso Diego Tuesday, October 16, 2012 Laurie Gerber

2 Kinds of Cheese (American Cheese Society Classification) Fresh cheeses – chevre, cottage cheese, mozzarella Soft-ripened cheeses – brie, camembert Semi-soft cheeses – jack, havarti, port-salut Firm/hard cheeses – cheddar, gouda, swiss, parmesan Blue cheeses – roquefort, stilton, gorgonzola Pasta filata cheeses – mozzarella, provolone Natural rind cheeses – Stilton, Mimolette Washed rind – Muenster, Taleggio Processed cheeses – American, Laughing Cow

3 Appearance of soft-ripened cheese 2000BC 1000BC AD 1000 2012 2000 BC - First “secure” evidence of cheesemaking -Sumerian cuneiform -Egyptian tomb murals 879 - Gorgonzola 1500 - Cheddar 1791 - Camembert 700s - Brie – Charlemagne places standing order 1900 - Cambozola

4 Brie

5 What makes it a soft ripened cheese? Soft – high moisture curds Primary ripening (acidification) with bacterial culture Shaped in molds/hoops but not pressed Secondary ripening with fungal mold – from the outside in “Bloomy” or wrinkly exterior Perishable – brief time window of perfection All about flavor – not a milk preservation method

6 Types and styles Fully ripened (brie, camembert) – Thin profile enables full paste ripening before spoilage Chalky core (humbolt fog, gratte paille) – Thick profile retards mold ripening of center Surface ripened – Lower moisture inhibits spoilage as cheese ages/dries Cow, goat, sheep and mixed-milk varieties Majority from France, some in Spain, Italy, Germany, US, UK Other common features: – Vegetable ash – encourages mold, discourages bacteria. Most common on goat cheese.

7 Brie de Meaux

8 Gratte Paille

9 Soft ripened cheese production Cultures – generally mesophillic bacterial culture – Two or three strains produce diacetyl giving buttery flavor: Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. Cremoris Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis Lactococcus lactis ssp Lactis ? – Two types of white mold – in starter or spray on Penicillium candidum Geotrichum candidum – One blue mold Penicillium roqueforti Ripening temperature: Low (75°) to moderate (90°) Milk ripening time: Varies – 1 – 24 hours Rennet: small quantity – few drops – 1.2t/gallon Curd cutting: Large pieces - Large cubes – slices – no cutting Stirring: none Cooking/washing: none Shaping: Drain in mold – no pressing Salting: Surface salting Ageing: brief – 10 days – 6 weeks Shelf life: Short, perishable

10 About the (fungal) molds Often used in combination Equal amounts or about 2:1 Penicillium candidum Geotrichum candidum

11 Penicillium roqueforti Blue mold Stilton -> Also possible to use as surface mold as in Monte Enebro

12 About butteriness Brie – whole milk cheese Secondary ripening and diacetyl, not high fat Fat content – Brie – 60% (of dry matter); 31% of cheese – Double cream – 60-75% (of dry matter); – Triple cream – >75% (of dry matter); 39% of the cheese Because brie is high moisture – lower fat than cheddar

13 Ripening/Ageing Mold growth is aerobic Ripening from outside->in Desirable developments – Bloomy rind – Proteolysis/lipolysis (transformation of paste from chalky/firm to supple/oozy) – Flavor development: savory, mushroomy, pungent Undesirable developments – Pathogens (salmonella, listeria) – Pink or black mold – Ammonia and sulphur (overripe/spoiled)

14 Valençay

15 Aging profile

16 Examples – Provided by Mary Palmer Taste Artisan Cheese! Brie de Meaux Whole cow’s milk France Explorateur Triple cream cow’s milk France Humboldt Fog Goat’s milk Ash midline and exterior dusting Sonoma, California Monte Enebro Goat’s milk Blue mold ripened Spain

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