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Cooper Danner Nathan Davenport Tanner Menard

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1 Cooper Danner Nathan Davenport Tanner Menard
MUSCULAR SYSTEM Cooper Danner Nathan Davenport Tanner Menard

2 OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM Basic Functions: Locomotion Facial Expression
Posture Produces Heat Circulates Blood Approximately 650 individual muscles which are attached to the skeleton Three types of muscle tissues… 1) Skeletal 2) Cardiac 3) Smooth Voluntary/ Involuntary Muscles Relationships with other systems: Articulates the skeletal system Controls Blood Vessels (Circulatory System) Provides Movement for Digestive System OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM

40% of an adults Human Body Weight Long Muscle Fibers Nervous Systems controls the contraction of the muscle Work in pairs (Bicep/ Tricep) Voluntary Muscle Multi-nucleated SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUES

HEART!!! Muscular Organ located behind the sternum. About the size of a clenched fist. Adult heart weighs between 9 and 11 ounces. Pericardium is a protective tissue that surrounds the heart. Similar to Skeletal in that it is striated. Similar to Smooth in that it is involuntary Mydocardium, are the walls of the chambers of the heart. It pumps blood throughout the body. CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUES

5 SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUES Involuntary/Non-Striated Muscle
Single Unit/ Multi-Unit Found within the walls of blood vessels. Much of our internal organs are made up of smooth muscles Controlled by Nervous System and Hormones. Blood Vessels, Bladder, Lymphatic Vessels, Male/Female Reproductive Tracts SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUES

6 CELLULAR DYNAMICS Action potential Sarcolemna Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Role of Ca+ ions Myofilaments Actin filaments Myosin filaments An action potential is conducted through the CELLULAR DYNAMICS

7 MUSCULAR DYNAMICS Fascicles Basic unit
Multiple fascicles form a muscle Connective tissues Functions Electrically insulating Support Endomysium Perimysium Epimysium Deep Fascia Superficial Fascia MUSCULAR DYNAMICS

8 CONNECTIVE TISSUE Purpose Transmits kinetic energy Connective
Structure Composed of extensions of connective tissue within the cell Both connective tissue and muscular fibers form an organ CONNECTIVE TISSUE


10 HEAD AND NECK Head Muscles Neck Muscles Frontalis (Forehead)
Unique muscles that are attached to the skull on one end and the skin on the other. Frontalis (Forehead) Masseter (Lower Jaw) (Used for chewing, opens and closes the jaw) Buccinator (Cheek) Sternocleidomastoid (Neck, allows neck to flex and head to turn) HEAD AND NECK

11 THORACIC REGION Chest Muscles Back Muscles
These are larger muscles in comparision to the rest of the body, and have major functions, that are essential to everyday activities. Pectoralis Major- Flex the shoulders and pull arms into body Trapezius- run from back of neck to the middle of the back. Raise, lower, and abduct shoulders. THORACIC REGION

12 A group of six muscles that extend from the ribs to the pelvis
A group of six muscles that extend from the ribs to the pelvis. The abdominals support and provide movement to the trunk. Often called the core. Rectus Abdominis- “strap like” muscles of the abdomen. Better known as stomach muscles. Obliques- located on the side walls of the abdomen. In addition to help with compression of the abdomen, the rotate the trunk and allow it to bend sideways. ABDOMINAL REGION

13 UPPER LIMBS Deltoid- Triangular Shaped muscle that forms the shoulder.
These muscles are frequently used in everyday activities. Commonly found in pairs. (Bicep/Tricep or Flexors/Extensors). Deltoid- Triangular Shaped muscle that forms the shoulder. Help to abduct the arm (moves arms away from body.) Bicep- The most familiar muscle of the upper arm. Works with the tricep. (bends the arm) Tricep- Located on the backside of the upper arm. Works with the bicep. (straightens the arm) Flexor Carpi- long muscles located on the forearm. (bends the wrist) Flexor Digitorum- located on the forearm. (bends the fingers) (The flexor carpi and digitorum have opposite muscles that produce the opposite effects, called extensor carpi and extensor digitorum) UPPER LIMBS

14 LOWER LIMBS Gluteus Maximus- Form the majority of flesh in the
These muscles are vital to locomotion. Also known as the largest and strongest muscles in the human body. Muscles such as the thigh are extremely powerful due to their constant resistance against gravity. Gluteus Maximus- Form the majority of flesh in the buttocks. (climbing stairs/jumping) Adductor- Form the mass on the inside of your thighs. (One of the strongest muscles in your body) Quadriceps- On top of the thigh, help to extend the leg and straighten the knee. (kicking a soccer ball) Hamstrings- Work in opposition to the quads, help to flex or bend the knee. Gastrocnemius- Diamond shaped muscle located on the back of the lower leg. (calf) Tibialis Anterior- Runs over the front of the shin. Works in opposition of the gastrocnemius. Inverts and elevates the foot. LOWER LIMBS

15 Bibliography Nagel, Rob Body By Design. Edition One. Detroit, MI, 2000
(Muscular System Overview) (Smooth Muscle) (Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac) (Head/Neck Muscles) (Thoracic Region) (Abdominal Muscles) (Upper Limb Muscles) (Lower Limb Muscles) Bibliography

16 Please view the three main types of muscle tissues (skeletal, smooth, cardiac) on slides through the microscopes. LAB ACTIVITY

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