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Anatomy and Physiology

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 6 Muscular System

2 Muscular System The body system that covers, shapes, and supports the skeletal tissue It contracts and moves various parts of the body

3 Cosmetologists Limited to:
Voluntary muscles Arms, hands, lower legs, feet

4 Myology The science of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles

5 Muscle 600 muscles 40% of body’s weight
Fibrous tissue that have the ability to stretch and contract according to the demands of the body’s movements

6 Striated Muscles Skeletal or voluntary muscles Striped
Legs, arms, face etc. Striped What we work over and are concerned about Attached to the bones and are controlled by will Create heat and energy for the body during muscle contractions Assist in maintaining posture Protect some internal organs


8 Nonstriated Muscles Involuntary, visceral Smooth (not striped)
Diaphragm etc. Smooth (not striped) Function automatically, without conscious will, without thought or control Found in internal organs of digestive and respiratory systems


10 Cardiac Muscle Involuntary muscle that is the heart
Not found anywhere else in the body


12 Origin Part of the muscle that does not move
Fixed attachment to a bone or ligament Direction of movement is from the insertion of the muscle to the origin of the muscle

13 Insertion Part of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the bone or ligament

14 Belly or Body Middle part of the muscle

15 Muscle tissue can be stimulated by:
Massage Electrical current Light rays Dry heat Moist heat Nerve impulses Chemicals

16 Muscles of the scalp Epicranius – broad muscle that covers the top of the skull Occipitalis – back of the head draws the scalp backward Frontalis – front of head muscle that raises the eyebrows Draws the scalp forward Causes wrinkles across the forehead

17 Superior – above Inferior – below Anterior – front Posterior - back

18 Muscles of the ear Auricularis superior – Auricularis Anterior –
Muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward Auricularis Anterior – Muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward Auricularis Posterior – Muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward

19 Muscle of Mastication (chewing)
Masseter – Long broad muscle on the sides of the chin - in front of the ear, to aid in chewing Temporalis – Muscle on sides of head above the ear and behind the eyes to aid the masseter in chewing

20 Muscles of the Neck Platysma – Sternocleidomastoideus –
Broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin Responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip Sternocleidomastoideus – Muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head

21 Muscles of the Eyebrow Corrugator – Orbicularis oculi –
located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi Draws the eyebrow down Wrinkles the forehead vertically Orbicularis oculi – Ring of muscle of the eye socket Enables you to close your eyes

22 Muscles of the Nose Procerus Other – Covers the bridge of the nose
Lowers the eyebrows Causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose Other – Nasal muscles contract and expand the opening of the nostrils

23 Muscles of the Mouth Mentalis Orbicularis Oris Elevates the lower lip
Raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin Orbicularis Oris Flat band around the mouth Compresses, contracts, puckers and wrinkles the lips - kissing

24 Risorius Triangularis Zygomaticus
Muscle that draws the corner of the mouth out and back as in grinning Triangularis Muscle extending alongside the chin Pulls down the corner of the mouth Zygomaticus Muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth Elevate the lip as in laughing



27 Muscles that attach the arms to the body
Latissimus Dorsi Broad, flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back Controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm

28 Pectoralis major/pectoralis minor
Muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm Serratus Anterior Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm

29 Trapezius Muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back Rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm



32 Muscles of the Shoulder and Arm
Biceps Two (2) headed muscle Muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm Lift the forearm Flex elbow Turn the palms outward

33 Deltoids Large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint
Allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body

34 Triceps Three (3) headed muscle
Large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm Extends the forearm

35 Forearm muscles Extensors Flexors
Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line Flexors Extensor muscles of the wrist Involved in bending the wrist

36 Pronators Muscle that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward Supinators Muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward


38 Muscles of the Hand Abductors Adductors Opponent muscles
Muscle that separate the fingers Adductors Muscles at the base of each finger that draw fingers together Opponent muscles Muscles in the palm that act to bring the thumb toward the fingers


40 Muscles of the Lower Leg and Foot
Extensor Digitorum Longus Bends the foot up and extends the toes Tibialis Anterior Covers the front of the shin Bends the foot upward and inward

41 Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Covers the outer side of the calf
Inverts the foot Turns it outward Peroneus Brevis Originates in the lower surface of the fibula Bends the foot down and out

42 Gastrocnemius Soleus Attached to the lower rear surface of the heel
Pulls the foot down Soleus Originates in the upper portion of the fibula Bends the foot down


44 Muscles of the Foot Extensors Digitorum Brevis Abductor Hallucis
Flexor Brevis Abductor Muscles move the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing


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