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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lower Limb Skeleton (homologous with upper limb) Muscles--anterior, posterior compartments Nerves--sciatic, femoral.

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Presentation on theme: "Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lower Limb Skeleton (homologous with upper limb) Muscles--anterior, posterior compartments Nerves--sciatic, femoral."— Presentation transcript:

1 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lower Limb Skeleton (homologous with upper limb) Muscles--anterior, posterior compartments Nerves--sciatic, femoral Surface anatomy What is a limb? Skeleton Joints Pelvis or limb girdle Hip/Hip Muscles Lumber and sacral plexus—getting spinal nerves out onto limb Muscles—anterior and posterior compartments Surface anatomy

2 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb What is a limb? Ventral somatic outgrowth of outer tube Bones (made of bony tissue, cartilage, and other tissues) Joints Muscles Nerves (with motor neurons to muscles, sensory neurons to skin, proprioceptors) No viscera--all innervation is somatic (motor or sensory) from ventral ramus of spinal nerve (except autonomics to blood vessels)

3 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Upper Limb Scapula Humerus Radius, ulna Carpals Digits Metacarpals Phalanges Lower Limb Pelvis Femur Tibia, fibula Tarsals Digits Metatarsals Phalanges

4 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Scapula Humerus Radius, ulna Carpals Digits Metacarpals Phalanges Upper Limb

5 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb

6 Tibia/fibula Tibia--big toe side Fibula--little toe side (no pronation/supination)

7 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Ankle Talus--forms ankle joint Calcaneus--forms heel

8 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Foot Function: Support weight Act as lever when walking Tarsals Talus = ankle Between tibia + fibula Articulates w/both Calcaneus = heel Attachment for Calcaneal tendon Carries talus Metatarsals Homologous to metacarpals Phalanges Smaller, less nimble

9 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Joints of Lower Limb Hip (femur + acetabulum) Ball + socket Multiaxial Synovial Knee (femur + patella) Plane Gliding of patella Synovial Knee (femur + tibia) Hinge Biaxial Synovial

10 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Joints of Lower Limb Proximal Tibia + Fibula Plane Gliding Synovial Distal Tibia + Fibula Slight “give” Fibrous Ankle (Tibia/Fibula + Talus) Hinge Uniaxial Synovial pg 218

11 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lower Limb Movements Hip Flexion/extension Abduction/adduction Lateral/medial rotation Knee Flexion/extension Ankle Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion Inversion/eversion Toes Flexion/extension Bending on posterior side is flexion (except hip) Bending on anterior sided is extension (except hip)

12 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Pelvic tilt and a reverse lumbar curve (or how we got to be upright) Bowl concept pelvis spills forward Hernia “beer belly” In human minor pelvis is behind (posterior) to guts and abdominal cavity Compare human pelvic position with quadruped (cat for instance)

13 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Human pelvis still has quadruped orientation

14 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Bony structure of the pelvis MAIN STRUCTURES Hip bone (innominate, os coxae)--fusion of Ilium (“hips”) Ischium (“rear”) Pubis (anterior midline) Sacrum and coccyx Acetabulum Femur--head, neck, greater trochanter HOLES False and true pelvis (major, minor pelvis) Pelvic inlet, pelvic outlet Sacrotuberous ligament Sacrospinous ligament Greater, lesser sciatic foramen Obturator foramen

15 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb

16 Female Male Cavity is broad, shallow Pelvic inlet oval + outlet round Bones are lighter, thinner Pubic angle larger Coccyx more flexible, straighter Ischial tuberosities shorter, more everted Cavity is narrow, deep Smaller inlet + outlet Bones heavier, thicker Pubic angle more acute Coccyx less flexible, more curved Ischial tuberosities longer, face more medially

17 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Posterior and lateral hip Gluts (gluteal nn.) Maximus—extensor of thigh Medius--pelvic tilt (relative to insertion with foot planted) Lateral rotators (spinal nn.) Piriformis syndrome

18 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Anterior Hip Iliopsoas iliacus psoas Quadratus lumborum

19 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lumbar and sacral plexus Mr. Bill is happy—so easy Lumbar plexus forms femoral n.—anterior Sacral plexus forms sciatic n.--posterior Femoral n. Sciatic n.

20 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lumbar plexus (femoral nerve) Sacral plexus (sciatic nerve) With leg out to side like quadruped, lumbar-anterior, sacral-posterior makes sense

21 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Dermatomes show twisting of leg during development Dorsal becomes anterior: thus “dorsiflexion” and extension in anterior compartment (unlike upper limb) Ventral becomes posterior: thus flexion is in posterior compartment (unlike upper limb)

22 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Anterior/Posterior compartments ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT MOVEMENTExtensionFlexion MUSCLESQuads Shin Hamstrings Gastrocs NERVESFemoral n. (lumbar plexus) Sciatic n. (sacral plexus)

23 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Thigh movements by compartment

24 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Anterior thigh (femoral n.) Sartorius (Tailor’s muscle) Quads (four) Rectus femoris (crosses hip) 3 vastus mm. (vast--big)

25 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Posterior thigh (sciatic n.) Hamstrings Biceps femoris Semimembranous Semitendinous

26 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Medial thigh (obturator n.) Adductor muscles Gracilis Adductor Magnus Longus brevis

27 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Leg movements by compartment (in leg all nn are branches of sciatic)

28 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Anterior Leg (deep fibular n.) Extensors (dorsiflexors) Fibularis (peroneus) longus Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallicus longus Tibialis anteriorus

29 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lateral Leg (superficial fibular n.) Fibularis brevis/longus

30 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Posterior Leg (tibial n.) Flexors (plantarflexors) Gastrocs and soleus Flexor digitorum longus Flexor hallucus longus

31 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Human gait Humans only large mammal marathoners, ultra-runners Prehistoric cultures hunted by exhausting large prey Bipedalism very efficient energetically Gastroc-Achilles spring One other large mammal more efficient—also bipedal

32 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Intrinsics of foot

33 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Surface Anatomy: Anterior Thigh + Leg Palpate Patella Condyles of femur Femoral Triangle Sartorius (lateral) Adductor longus (medial) Inguinal ligament (superior) Femoral a + v, lymph nodes pg 785 pg 792

34 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Surface Anatomy: Posterior Leg Popliteal fossa Diamond-shape fossa behind knee Boundaries Biceps femoris (sup-lat) Semitendinosis + semimembranosis (sup- med) Gastrocnemius heads (inf) Contents Popliteal a + v Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon pg 793

35 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Blood supply to lower limb Internal Iliac Cranial + Caudal Gluteals= gluteals Internal Pudendal = perineum, external genitalia Obturator = adductor muscles External Iliac Femoral = lower limb Deep femoral = adductors, hamstrings, quadriceps Popliteal (continuation of femoral) Geniculars = knee Anterior Tibial = ant. leg muscles, further branches to feet Posterior Tibial = flexor muscles, plantar arch, branches to toes


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