Presentation on theme: "Muscles of the thigh. Objectives Know the type and formation of hip joint. Differentiate the stability and mobility between the hip joint and shoulder."— Presentation transcript:
Muscles of the thigh
Objectives Know the type and formation of hip joint. Differentiate the stability and mobility between the hip joint and shoulder joint. Identify the muscles that act at the hip joint. Identify the muscles of the thigh in terms of their origin, insertion, nerve supply and actions. Explain the relationships of contents of the femoral triangle to each other & to the surrounding bone and soft tissue landmarks.
Surface anatomy of the thigh Surface features of the Thigh – Sartorius muscle – Quadriceps femoris muscle – Adductor longus muscle – Hamstring muscles – Femoral triange
Anatomy of the thigh Thigh is divided to 3 groups of muscles called compartments. Anterior compartment Posterior compartment Medial compartment
3 compartments The thigh is divided into 3 compartments by 3 intermuscular septa (extending from deep fascia into femur) 3 compartments The thigh is divided into 3 compartments by 3 intermuscular septa (extending from deep fascia into femur) Anterior Compartment Extensors of knee: Quadriceps femoris Flexors of hip: 1. Sartorius 2. Pectineus 3. psoas major 4. Iliacus Nerve supply: Femoral nerve Medial Compartment Adductors of hip: 1. Adductor longus 2. Adductor brevis 3. Adductor magnus (adductor part) 4. Gracilis Nerve supply: Obturator nerve Posterior Compartment Flexors of knee & extensors of hip: Hamstrings Nerve supply: Sciatic nerve Sciatic nerve
MUSCLES: 1.Adductor longus 2.Adductor brevis 3.Adductor magnus (Adductor portion) 4.Gracilis ACTION: ADDUCTION OF HIP JOINT N.B.: Gracilis also flexes knee joint NERVE SUPPLY: OBTURATOR NERVE Adductor magnus (Adductor portion) Medial Compartment of Thigh 1 2 3 4 Adductor magnus (Hamstring portions) 1 2 3 4
Insertion Posterior border of femur (Linea Aspera) Upper part of medial surface of tibia (behind sartorius) Adductor longus Adductor brevis Adductor magnus (adductor portion) Gracilis Origin Body of pubis Inferior pubic ramus Ischial ramus Adductor hiatus Hamstring hiatus Adductor part
Blood Supply: Obturator artery: Branch of internal iliac artery.
Medial Compartment Innervation: Obturator nerve. Tibial nerve: To hamstring portion of adductor magnus. Action: Adduction
Anterior Compartment of Thigh Vastus Intermedius (deep to rectus femoris) 1 2 3 1 4 2 3 4 Contains the: Flexor of the hip: 1.Sartorius 2.Pectineus 3.psoas major 4.Iliacus Extensors of knee (Quadriceps femoris): 1.Rectus femoris 2.Vastus lateralis 3.Vastus medialis 4.Vastus intermedius (deep to rectus femoris) Nerve supply: Nerve supply: Femoral nerve
SartoriusSartorius INSERTION Upper part of medial surface of tibia S ACTION (TAILOR’S POSITION) Flexion, abduction & lateral rotation of hip joint Flexion of knee joint ORIGIN Anterior superior iliac spine
PectineusPectineus ORIGIN: Superior pubic ramusINSERTION: Back of femur (below lesser trochanter) ACTION: Flexion & adduction of hip joint
Iliacus & Psoas major (Iliopsoas) INSERTION: Lesser trochanter of femur ACTION: Flexion of hip joint ORIGIN: Psoas major: T12 & lumbar vertebrae Iliacus: Iliac fossa In less than 50 percent of humans the psoas major is accompanied by the psoas minor. It is located in front of the psoas major muscle.
Quadriceps Femoris ORIGIN: Rectus femoris: Rectus femoris: Anterior inferior iliac spine Vastus intermedius: Front of shaft of femur Vastus medialis: Posterior border of femur Vastus lateralis: Posterior border of femur
Quadriceps Femoris INSERTION: PATELLA Into PATELLA (Patella is a sesamoid bone) TUBEROSITY OF TIBIA Ligamentum Patellae (Patellar Ligament) From patella into TUBEROSITY OF TIBIA through Ligamentum Patellae (Patellar Ligament) ACTION: Extension of knee joint
Femoral Triangle: Location & Boundaries It is a deep hollow in the Upper third of front of thigh inferior to the inguinal ligament It is a deep hollow in the Upper third of front of thigh inferior to the inguinal ligamentBoundaries Base: Inguinal ligament Base: Inguinal ligament Medial: Medial border of the adductor longus muscle Medial: Medial border of the adductor longus muscle Lateral: Medial border of the sartorius muscle Lateral: Medial border of the sartorius muscle Floor: (from media to lateral) Floor: (from media to lateral) adductor longus adductor longus Pectineus Pectineus Psoas major Psoas major Iliacus Iliacus Roof: Skin, superficial & deep fascia. Roof: Skin, superficial & deep fascia. Pectineus Iliopsoas
Femoral Triangle: Contents From lateral to medial: 1.Femoral nerve & its branches 2.Femora artery 3.Femoral vein 4.Lymphatic vessels and some deep inguinal lymph nodes 5.Contents Femoral nerve Femoral artery & deep (profunda) femoral branch Femoral vein Great saphenous vein (superficial), draining into femoral vein Lymphatics Femoral sheath
DEFINITION: DEFINITION: an aponeurotic tunnel for femoral artery & vein SITE: SITE: In middle third of front of thigh deep to sartorius EXTENT: EXTENT: From apex of femoral triangle to adductor hiatus BOUNDARIES: Roof (Anterior): Sartorius (medially) and vastus medialis (laterally) Floor (Posterior): Adductor longus & magnus ADDUCTOR CANAL (Subsartorial/Hunter’s canal) Adductor hiatus
POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE THIGH Muscles: Hamstring muscles: Biceps femoris. Semitendinosus. Semimembranosus. Ischial part of adductor magnus. Blood supply: Branches of the profunda femoris artery. Nerve supply: Sciatic nerve. CONTENTS
Biceps Femoris : Origin: –The long head from the ischial tuberosity. –The short head from the linea aspera. Insertion: Into the head of the fibula. Nerve supply: The long head is supplied by the tibial part of the sciatic; the short head is supplied by the common peroneal part of the sciatic. Action : Flexion of knee. Lateral rotation of flexed leg. Long head: extends hip.
SEMITENDINOSUS Origin: Ischial tuberosity. Insertion: Upper part of the medial surface of the shaft of the tibia (SGS).. Nerve supply: Tibial portion of the sciatic. Action: Flexes and medially rotates the leg at the knee joint; Extends the thigh at the hip joint.
SEMIMEMBRANOSUS Origin: Ischial tuberosity. Insertion: Posterior surface of the medial condyle of the tibia. It forms the oblique popliteal ligament, which reinforces the capsule on the back of the knee joint. Nerve supply: Tibial portion of the sciatic nerve. Action: Flexes and medially rotates the leg at the knee joint; Extends the thigh at the hip.
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS (HAMSTRING PART) Origin: Ischial ramus and ischial tuberosity Insertion: Adductor tubercle of the medial condyle of the femur. Nerve supply: The tibial portion of the sciatic. Action: Extends the thigh at the hip joint.
Posterior compartment of the thigh Innervation: Tibial division of sciatic nerve Except short head of biceps femoris: common fibular division of sciatic nerve posterior
BLOOD SUPPLY femoris arteryThe four perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery provide a rich blood supply to this compartment. The profunda femoris vein drains the greater part of the blood from the compartment.
NERVE SUPPLY Sciatic Nerve The sciatic nerve, a branch of the sacral plexus (L4 and 5; S1, 2, and 3), leaves the gluteal region as it descends in the midline of the thigh. It is overlapped posteriorly by the adjacent margins of the biceps femoris and semimembranosus muscles. It lies on the posterior aspect of the adductor magnus. In the lower third of the thigh it ends by dividing into the tibial and common peroneal nerves.
Psoas Major Tensor Fascia Latae Rectus Femoris Adductor Longus Sartorius Vastus Medialis Iliacus Vastus Lateralis Vastus Intermedius DEEP TO RECTUS FEMORIS