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Modernization: Iran, Egypt and Turkey

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1 Modernization: Iran, Egypt and Turkey
Chapter 27 Section 3

2 Goal Students will compare and contrast the development of three Middle Eastern nations Iran, Egypt, Turkey

3 1. Modernization Changes in a nation that enable it to set up a stable government and produce a high level of goods and services Goals

4 List several obstacles to Modernization in the Middle East
Pre-Class List several obstacles to Modernization in the Middle East

5 Obstacles to Modernization
population explosion poverty illiteracy limited education fear of cultural change Islamists/Extremists civil unrest/conflict/Political corruption/unrest Debt Crisis Scarcity of water/land

6 2. Land and Resources of Iran
2nd largest country in the Middle East Much of Iran is a dry, rugged plateau Most Iranians live in the northeast where rainfall is adequate Resources Oil: Iran’s oil reserves: the 4th largest in the world = modernization

7 3. People of Iran more than a dozen ethnic groups
3rd largest population more than a dozen ethnic groups Only a small percentage of people are Arabs Most people speak Persian, a modern form of the language of ancient Persia Most Iranians are Muslims Iran is the only Middle Eastern nation where Shiites are in the majority

8 4. Shah of Iran Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi Shah Iran from 1941-1979
Argo Opening Shah Iran from But real power came after WWII Operation Ajax 1953 – US backed coup Supported by US and Britain

9 4. Shah of Iran Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi Goals:
Economic and social reforms = modernize He wanted to make Iran “comparable to the most developed countries in the world” Shah gradually lost support from the Shi’a clergy of Iran, particularly due to his strong policy of modernization

10 #4. What the Shah accomplished
Economic and social reforms = Modernization Land reform - broke up large estates and distributed land to peasants improved health care and education government financed water projects, new roads & encouraged industrial growth Social reforms gave women new rights (right to vote) Supported by SAVAK

11 5. Causes of the Islamic Revolution
Shah’s policies didn’t improve life for many Iranians A growing gap separated the small group of westernized Iranians from the rest of the Iranian people

12 5. Causes of the Islamic Revolution
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini called on Iranians to defend their Islamic values To many western ideas/values Leader of the Islamic Revolution In 1979 supporters of Khomeini overthrew the shah

13 New Year’s Eve 1977

14 Fundamentalism Belief that society should be based on the principles of one’s religion
Opposition to westernization. Western influences corrupt the society



17 6. Effects of the Islamic Revolution
Iran became a theocracy a government ruled by religious leaders Supreme Leader, Guardian Council, President they replaced secular courts with religious courts & enforced Muslim traditions Women were required to wear veils in public Strict laws banned western movies and music Revolutionaries held 52 American citizens hostage for over one year

18 6. Effects of the Islamic Revolution
Economy slowed because of economic sanctions from west actions taken by one nation or group of nations to harm the economy of another nation or group, often to force a political change

19 7. Recent political trends in Iran?
After Khomeini died in 1989 new leaders have made changes Renewed some ties to western nations that have been cut – no formal relations with US Slowly moved to elections but issues Elections limited to Islamic candidates Tensions between reformers and traditionalists Reformers want to quicken the pace of change Traditionalists reject modernizing influences that undermine Islamic principles Today: Many of the reforms have been lost with the rise of Former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad - Possible changes with new President Hassan Rouhani

20 7. Recent political trends in Iran?
Today: Many of the reforms have been lost with the rise of Former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad - Possible changes with new President Hassan Rouhani Ahmadinejad President Hassan Rouhani

21 New York Times UpFront Iran Video 14 mins

22 Quick Check Iran's rapid economic development has been due largely to its ethnic diversity Islamic revolution oil resources population

23 Quick Check A major cause of the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979 was the concern by Islamic leaders that – 5 choices traditional values were being undermined by western ideas women were being denied political rights Israel had lost its influence in the Middle East religious leaders were becoming too powerful the failure of the Shah’s reforms to improve life for many Iranians

24 Quick Check Which of the following was an outcome of the Islamic Revolution in Iran? Iran became a Muslim theocracy closer ties with the west nationalization of the oil industry increased modernization

25 8. Population in Egypt Egypt has the largest population in the Middle East Because most of Egypt is a desert, 95% of Egyptians live on only 5% of the land Cities, towns and villages border a narrow strip of land along the Nile River 12% of the population live in Cairo

26 8. Egypt’s Resources Egypt’s greatest resource in the fertile Nile Valley Developing agriculture is a goal of the government

27 9. The Goal of Egypt’s economic policy
To end economic dependence on the West – socialism Expand farm output Increased wages for urban workers

28 10. Economic Policy of Gamal Abdel Nasser (1956-1970)
Nasser promoted Arab socialism Nationalized industry including Suez Canal Nasser also built the Aswan High Dam Dam allowed Egypt to irrigate more farmland, control Nile flooding, and produce low-cost hydroelectric power for factories and homes Limited success

29 Discovering History: 20th-Century Biographies: Leaders of the Middle East


31 11. Sadat and Mubarak changed Nasser’s goals
Sadat ( ) moved away from Arab socialism and encouraged foreign and private industry in Egypt - Open Door

32 11. Sadat and Mubarak changed Nasser’s goals
Mubarak: became president after Sadat’s assassination ( ) He tried to balance the needs of a large population & pay Egypt’s debt cut in social programs hurt thousands of Egyptians – Unrest Website Rise in Islamists

33 Arab Spring Arab Spring
refers to the democratic uprisings that arose independently and spread across the Arab world in 2011. The movement originated in Tunisia in December 2010 and quickly took hold in Egypt, Libya, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan.

34 Arab Spring Mubarak Removed from power 2011 Arab Spring
Authoritarian rule – lack of free election Poor economy = high unemployment & low wagers Currently holding elections

35 12. Obstacles to the Development of Egypt
Islamists groups turned to terrorism (Frontline Video) In 1997, a group of terrorists killed 58 foreign tourists Mubarak remained a key ally of the United States, which brought criticism from Islamic extremists Debt Political Unrest

36 Quick Check A. Most of the Egyptian population is clustered in the Nile River Valley mainly because the river is of great military importance heavy industry is located along the river the river is the major source of water for agriculture it is the most scenic area in the country

37 Quick Check B. A major goal pursued by Nasser was to end land reform
promote an Islamic revolution establish Arab Socialism and end economic dependence reduce the influence of the Muslim clergy

38 Quick Check C. Mubarak was removed during a series of democratic uprisings in the Middle East referred to as the Islamic Revolution Nationalism Century Egyptian Fall Arab Spring

39 13. How Turkey built Western Ties
Turkey joined NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization A western military alliance Turkey also sought to join the European Union Membership helps to increase trade and other ties with Europe secularism

40 14. Describe Turkey’s economy
Turkey has one of the most balanced economies in the Middle East Mix of modern industry and trade along with traditional agriculture Have also developed a number of industries Automobile manufacturing, textiles, food processing In the past, government controlled the economy-today it has privatized some industry and set up joint ventures with European countries

41 15. Challenges Turkey faces
Population is growing faster than the economy’s ability to create new jobs To remain a stable democracy To resolve the goals of modernization with Islamic fundamentalism Turkey Lifts Longtime Ban on Head Scarves in State Offices October 8, 2013 ISTANBUL — The government lifted a ban on head scarves for female workers in state offices, ending a longstanding restriction that has polarized Turkish society. Show Frontline Muslim Chapter minutes

42 Quick Check A. Unlike Iran, Turkey has
made progress toward modernization benefited from abundant oil resources made Arab unity a major goal become a secular nation

43 16a. Common Threads Ending foreign control of industry
Feeding, educating and employing their growing population giving extensive governmental power economic and social reforms improving agriculture and industry redistribute land technology effect = westernization To resolve the goals of modernization with Islamic fundamentalism

44 16b. Important Differences
Iran & Egypt nationalized industry and redistributed land Turkey tries to align itself with the West Egypt and Turkey lack oil

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