Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Action and Linking VerbsVerbs can work in two ways:Action verbs show action:We walk to the store every Tuesday.The children ran to South Beach.There can be more than one verb in a sentence:Shannon planned and practiced her speech.Anastasia bought the ingredients, prepared the brownies, and gave them to Sean.Linking verbs connect the subject with the word it describes:My mother is a good cook.The family seems happy.The homemade bread smells delicious.
2Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Finding the VerbFinding the Verb: Finding the subject is easier if you find the verb first. Following are guidelines to help you find the verb in a sentence:1. A verb may show action.The man danced by the fountain.The sports car roared down the driveway.2. A verb may link the subject to the rest of the sentence.The young horse was beautiful.My daughter seemed tired this afternoon.3. A verb may consist of more than one word. Some verbs include a main verb and one or more helping verbs.Susan has been taking piano lessons since the second grade.Jack might not have been at the playground.
3Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Finding the Verb4. Some verbs are compound verbs. Some subjects have more than one verb. When more than one verb goes with the same subject, the verb is called a compound verb.I cooked the pot roast and baked the lemon cake.5. An infinitive (to + present tense verb) cannot act as a verb in a sentence.Jessame decided to buy a piano. (The verb is decided.)6. A verb form ending in –ing cannot act as a verb in a sentence unless a helping verb precedes it.The setting sun cast beautiful colors of red and pink in the evening sky. (The verb is cast.)
4Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Finding the SubjectAfter you recognize verbs, finding the subjects of sentences is easy because subjects and verbs are linked.If the verb is an action verb, the subject will be the word or words that answer the question, Who or what is doing the action?Example sentence: The truck stalled on the highway.Step 1: Identify the verb: stalled.Step 2: Ask, “Who or What stalled?”: truckStep 3: The answer is the subject: The truck stalled on the highway.Answer: The subject is truck.
5Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Finding the SubjectIf your verb is linking, the same steps apply to finding the subject.Example sentence: Toll was my best friend.Step 1: Identify the verb: wasStep 2: Ask, “Who or What was my best friend?”: TollStep 3: The answer is the subject: Toll was my best friend.Answer: The subject is Toll.
6Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Recognizing Prepositional PhrasesPrepositions are usually small words that often signal a kind of position or possession.Common Prepositions:about before beyond inside on underabove below during into onto upacross behind except like over uponafter beneath for near through withamong beside from of to withinaround between in off toward withoutat
7Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Recognizing Prepositional PhrasesA prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition and its object.In each example, the first word is the preposition; the other words are the object of the preposition.Prepositional Phrase examples:about the movie in the kitchenaround the corner off the recordbetween two lanes on the markover the moors during the college’s recessnear my home with my sister and brotherNothing in a prepositional phrase can ever be the subject of the sentence.Prepositional phrases describe people, places, or things. They may describe the subject of a sentence, but they never include the subject.Note: Except in the most formal writing, ending a sentence with a preposition is acceptable.
8Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Regular and Irregular VerbsEvery verb has four principal parts: present, past, present participle (the –ing verb form used with helping verbs), and the past participle (used with helping verbs).Present Past Present Participle Past Participlelisten listened (are) listening (have) listenedadd added (are) adding (have) addedchange changed (are) changing (have) changedpull pulled (are) pulling (have) pulledIrregular verbs do not follow a predictable pattern in their past and past participle forms.For a list of common irregular verbs, see pages
9Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Puzzling PairsSome irregular verbs are easily confused with other words. The following will help you make the right choice between lend and loan, lie and lay, and sit and set.1. Lend and LoanLend is a verb meaning “to allow someone to borrow.”Example: Will you lend me five dollars?Loan is a noun meaning “something borrowed.”Example: Miss Lisi did receive a loan for the mansion.
10Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Puzzling Pairs2. Lie and LayThese words are often confused because the present tense of the verb lay and the past tense of lie are both the same: lay.Present Past Past Participle Present Participlelay (put) laid (have) laid (are) layinglie (recline) lay (have) lain (are) lyingLay means “to put” or “to place” and always has a direct object.Example: Tonight, Shelia will lay the embroidered tablecloth upon the table.Lie means “to recline” or “rest on a horizontal surface.”Example: The blankets have lain in the closet for years.
11Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Puzzling Pairs3. Sit and SetSit means “to take a seat” or “to be located”; it does not take an object.Example: She will sit on the chair to tie her tennis shoes.Set means “to put” or “to place”; it always takes an object. (You can ask, “Set what?”)Example: Monica set her exercise clothes down on the chair.
12Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify the verbs.Q. My brother rides a motorcycle.A. ridesQ. On a stormy night, my dog sleeps next to me.A. sleepsQ. He stretched and yawned during the discussion.A. stretched, yawned
13Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify the verbs.Q. Sliding down into the pool was my favorite summertime activity.A. wasQ. During the holidays, I always listen to Mario Lanza.A. listenQ. Diane and Ron live and work in the upstairs apartment.A. live, work
14Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Add a helping verb to the verb and create a sentence (answers will vary).Q. Verb: calledA. Add helping verb: was calledA. Sentence: He was called during class.Q. Verb: fishingA. Add helping verb: should be fishingA. Sentence: She should be fishing by this afternoon.
15Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Add a helping verb to the verb and create a sentence (answers will vary).Q. Verb: takeA. Add helping verb: might have takenA. Janet might have taken the ring from Brad.Q. Verb: shoutA. Add helping verb: will be singingA. Dr. Scott will be singing with Brad and Janet.
16Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify the subjects.Q. After the interview for the new job, excitement overwhelmed me.A. excitementQ. Anything could happen on a vacation to Grandma’s house.A. anythingQ. After the ice cream and the chocolate cake was gone, I was in no mood for more food.A. I
17Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify the subjects.Q. Swimming is fun.A. swimmingQ. Mom and Dad want me to be happy.A. Mom, DadQ. Behind the curtain under the ceramic giraffe is a big diamond ring.A. ring
18Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify the prepositional phrases.Q. During the college’s recess, we were able to find part time jobs in the city.A. during the college’s recess, in the cityQ. Near my apartment, I found a stray puppy at the park.A. near my apartment, at the parkQ. When I was watching the game on television, my friend brought me soda from the neighborhood store.A. on television, from the neighborhood store
19Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify the prepositional phrases.Q. From my apartment window, I can see the people in the shops and people on the streets.A. from my apartment window, in the shops, on the streetsQ. In the locker near my math book, I have a piece of gum by the candy bar.A. in the locker, near my math book, of gum, by the candy barQ. After the game at the park, let’s buy a chocolate sundae on the boardwalk.A. after the game, at the park, on the boardwalk
20Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify Prepositional Phrases, Subjects, and Verbs in Complicated Word Order.Q. In the back of the closet by the shoes is a secret letter from my cousin.A. Prepositional Phrase = in the back, of the closet, by the shoes, from my cousinSubject = letterVerb = is
21Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify Prepositional Phrases, Subjects, and Verbs in Complicated Word Order.Q. In my kitchen on the refrigerator there is a magnet with a small green frog near a lily pad.A. Prepositional Phrase = in my kitchen, on the refrigerator, with a small green frog, near a lily padSubject = magnetVerb = is
22Chapter 13: Verbs and Subjects Exercises Identify the correct form of the verb.Q. (Sit, Set) at the table to eat dinner.A. (Sit, Set) at the table to eat dinner.Q. After I return home from school, my dog loves (laying, lying) next to me.A. After I return home from school, my dog loves (laying, lying) next to me.Q. Before Wyatt went on vacation, he asked his friend to (lend, loan) him money.A. Before Wyatt went on vacation, he asked his friend to (lend, loan) him money.