INTERJECTION Definition: Interrupts with strong emotion Example: Ouch! Wow! Hey! Boom! Clue: in – ter – ject – ion
VERBS DEF: tells what subject is doing or being EX: John runs quickly. John is fast. Clue: Verb – It’s what you do.
ACTION VERB DEF: shows activity EX: Bill walked home. Jan jumped rope. Clue: act in action
HELPING VERB DEF: helps the main verb EX: did, may, might, will, would, can, could, should, have, etc. He should have come home. Clue: Help!
LINKING VERB DEF: shows no activity state of being verbs EX: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been CLUE: Link subject with predicate. Jim is asleep. S P
COMPOUND VERB DEF: two verbs EX: John runs and jumps. CLUE: com – pound pound 2 together
ADVERB DEF: describes verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs EX: Jim writes slowly. John left suddenly. CLUE: add to verbs most end in -ly LY
NOUN DEF: names person, place, thing, or idea EX: Jim, river, ball, love CLUE: Noun name
COMMON NOUN DEF: names ordinary person, place, thing, or idea EX: car, pen, shoe CLUE: common=ordinary I drive a van.
PROPER NOUN DEF: names specific person, place, thing, idea EX: Atlanta, Bill, Toyota CLUE: PROper name (professional) I drive a Mustang!
ADJECTIVE DEF: describes noun or pronoun (which one, what kind, how many, how much) EX: The yellow school bus came by my house today. CLUE: Usually before a noun to say more for a noun Yellow bus
COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE DEF: compares 2 things using –er or more EX: My dog is shorter than my cat. My radio is more expensive than yours. CLUE: compare - ative
SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE DEF: compares 3 or more things using -est or most EX: That giraffe is the shortest of all. My car is the most expensive one in the parking lot. CLUE: Super-size! SUPER - lative
PREPOSITION DEF: shows relationship between object of preposition & another word EX: above, on, in, after, to, with, by, from (for, during, of) CLUE: anything a plane can do to a cloud The plane is above the cloud.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE DEF: from the preposition to 1 st noun or pronoun EX: to the barn, in the pie, of the night Bill ran from the dog. CLUE: prepositional position is from the prep to the name. PREP TO NAME
PRONOUN DEF: replaces noun EX: I, me, he, she, it, they, them, you, us John handed them his newspaper. CLUE: pro-noun FORaNOUN She Her He Him
SIMPLE SUBJECT DEF: Subject only EX: The old man ran quickly. CLUE: Simple subject is the brain of the sentence.
COMPLETE SUBJECT DEF: the entire subject, from the start to the verb EX: The old man ran quickly. Clue: the whole subject the whole 1 st half
SIMPLE PREDICATE DEF: verb only – must be the complete verb phrase though EX: Jim was running quickly in the gym. CLUE: It’s the heart of the sentence.
COMPLETE PREDICATE DEF: from the verb to the end of the sentence Jim was running quickly in the gym. CLUE: whole predicate The whole 2 nd half
DIRECT OBJECT DEF: noun or pronoun that directly receives the action of the verb EX: John hit the ball. I dropped a penny. CLUE: say the main verb, then ask, “What?”
INDIRECT OBJECT DEF: noun or pronoun that indirectly receives the action from the verb EX: I gave the baby its bottle. CLUE: Say D.O. then ask “to who/what?”
GERUND DEF: -ing verb used as a noun EX: Running is fun. CLUE: ge – run –d – ing is fun!
INFINITIVE DEF: to + verb used as a noun, adjective, or adverb EX: I like to dance. He likes to fish. CLUE: tutu add to to a verb
PARTICIPLE DEF: -ing verb used as an adjective EX: The singing girl won it all. The smiling boy is my friend. CLUE: part of a description
APPOSITIVE DEF: identifies the noun (commas before & after) EX: My teacher, Mrs. Stone, is in room 13. CLUE: a positve identification
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE DEF: follows a linking verb and describes the subject EX: John is strong. The bus is yellow.
CLAUSE DEF: group of words containing subject (S) and verb (V) EX: When Kris left town, he forgot his bag. Clause = Claus brings S + V
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE DEF: a clause that could stand alone as a sentence EX: Jim left town.(IC) He forgot his bag.(IC) CLUE: an independent person stands by himself
DEPENDENT CLAUSE DEF: clause that could not stand alone as a sentence EX: When Jim left town, he forgot his bag. CLUE: dependent person can’t stand on their own
SIMPLE SENTENCE DEF: clause that stands alone as a sentence and makes sense. EX: Jim forgot his bag. CLUE: 1 idea 1 adult
COMPOUND SENTENCE DEF: 2 independent clauses – joined by comma conjunction (cc) or a semicolon (;) EX: Jim left town, but he forgot his bag. CLUE: 2 ideas joined 2 adults joined IC + IC = CD
COMPLEX SENTENCE DEF: 1 independent clause + 1 dependent clause EX: When John left town, he forgot his bag. CLUE: 1 ½ ideas 1 adult & 1 child IC + DC = CX
COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE DEF: 2 independent clauses and 1 dependent clause EX: When Jim left town, he forgot his bag, and it was never found. CLUE: 2 ½ ideas 2 adults, 1 child 2 IC + 1 DC = CMPD-CX
FRAGMENT DEF: incomplete thought – doesn’t make sense alone EX: When John left town (WRONG) CLUE: A fragment is only part
RUN-ON DEF: 2 sentences joined incorrectly – no connection EX: Jim left town he forgot his bag. (WRONG) CLUE: It was a run- on accident where one car ran into another one.
COMMA SPLICE DEF: 2 sentences joined with only a comma between them EX: Jim left town, he forgot his bag. (WRONG) CLUE: comma = pause It’s a slow down, not a stop. THROWING COMMAS AT A PROBLEM WON’T FIX IT.
DOUBLE NEGATIVE DEF: 2 negative words used for 1 negative idea EX: Correct: Jim hasn’t ever been there. Incorrect: Jim hasn’t never been there. CLUE: Negative N words: no, not, never, none Negative +ly words: hardly, barely, scarcely
REDUNDANT DEF: unnecessary repetition EX: Correct: Skiing is difficult. Incorrect: Skiing is difficult because it’s hard. CLUE: We re – dun – dat! You took the same test twice!
COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS DEF: short connecting words EX: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so CLUE: FANBOYS!
SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS DEF: found at the beginning of dependent clauses EX: As, Although, After, While, When, Unless, Until, Before, Because, If, Since CLUE: AAAWWUUBBIS!!
ADVERBIAL CONJUCTIONS DEF: long connecting words EX: For example, therefore, however, furthermore, unfortunately CLUE: change from 1 idea to another looooonnnnngggg connecting words
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE DEF: follows linking verb and describes the subject EX: Jim is strong. Joe is very fast. CLUE: an adjective in predicate, describes subject
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE DEF: follows linking verb and renames the subject EX: Jim is a fireman. Joe is a doctor. CLUE: a NOUN in predicate that renames the subject
DECLARATIVE SENTENCE DEF: a statement – always ends with a period (.) EX: Today is Monday. She is the winner. CLUE: declare it means to just tell information.
EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE DEF: with strong emotion – always ends with exclamation point (!) EX: We won! Today’s my birthday! CLUE: EXTRA! EXTRA! Read all about it! exclamatory = excited
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE DEF: asks a question – always ends with a question mark (?) EX: Who is that? Where did you find that? CLUE: interrogate or interview When you interrogate or interview someone, you ask them questions.
IMPERATIVE SENTENCE DEF: command – ends with (.) or (!) EX: Stop doing that, now! You put that down. CLUE: imperative = important It’s an order!
EXPOSITORY WRITING DEF: Explains information EX: Bats are nocturnal. The term “nocturnal” mean bats are creatures of the night. CLUE: EX = Explain I will explain the directions.
NARRATIVE WRITING DEF: Story – a person telling a story characters, plot, conflict EX: At the edge of the forest there was a cottage. It was home to a kind old woman. CLUE: narrator telling the story of an old lady
PERSUASIVE WRITING DEF: argues for or against something. Uses facts and opinions. EX: The dress code is unfair! Students should be allowed to wear what they want. CLUE: I will change your thinking!
chronological order DEF: time order of when things happen EX: At sunrise, John woke up. After that, he ate breakfast. Then he left for school. CLUE: Arrange things in order of the times they happen.
sequential order DEF: arranging things in the sequence they should occur (steps in a process) EX: Recipes (1 st – boil water, 2 nd – add rice, etc… ) or LEGOs instructions CLUE: Sequential = sequence steps!!
climactic order DEF: arranging things in order to build up to the most important part EX: letter asking parents to buy you a car CLUE: relates to climax in a story Dear Mom & Dad, You’ve always taught me well. I’ve saved my money, just like you taught me. Can I buy a car?
plagiarism DEF: copying someone else without giving credit EX: In encyclopedia: “The battle was led by the first American President, General Washington.” Student writes in research paper: “The battle was led by the first American President, General Washington.” CLUE: copy cat! I’ll just copy his exact words!
paraphrase DEF: restating the author’s words EX: In encyclopedia: “The battle was led by the first American President, General Washington.” In student paper: “Our first president, George Washington, led the battle (Brittainica, 2006). CLUE: para-phrase – I will say his phrase in my own words!
Parenthetical documentation DEF: citing source at end of quotation EX: Global warming poses imminent danger (Jones 2006). CLUE: it’s the address of where to locate the information
Works cited page DEF: alphabetical list by author’s last names EX: Jones, P. (2006) The best day of life. New York: Bantam Press CLUE: Works cited… the ones used in paper!
Search engine DEF: database for finding information on the internet EX: Google, Yahoo, Lycos, etc. CLUE: You are search-ing the internet.
almanac DEF: book of records for one year EX: in sports almanac you could find who had the most homeruns in 2007 CLUE: Almanac has all the facts!
atlas DEF: book of maps EX: includes maps of cities, countries, oceans, mountains, rivers CLUE: In mythology, Atlas held up the Earth… an atlas holds maps of the Earth
thesaurus DEF: book of synonyms and antonyms EX: can find words with similar meanings and words with opposite meanings CLUE: thesaurus= a dinosaur of synonyms & antonyms
Table of contents DEF: organizes chapters. Found at beginning of a book EX: Ch. 1 Nouns p. 5-65 Ch. 2 Verbs p. 66 – 96 Clue: set the table before you eat (organize it!!)
glossary DEF: a dictionary of words in a book. Comes at the end of the book. EX: acute angle – an angle whose measure is less than 90 CLUE:
index DEF: topics in alphabetical order at the end of a book EX: Capitalization pg. 228-257 Diagramming sentences pgs. 443-476 CLUE: in-de-back of the book w/ pg #s
bibliography DEF: research sources at the end of a research paper or textbook EX: Smith, B. John (2006) Hunting & Fishing. New York: Bantam Publishing. CLUE: The evidence of what you read.
Direct quotation DEF: copying words exactly EX: President Franklin Roosevelt said, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” CLUE: word-for-word inside quotation marks! Recording exactly what was said
Indirect quotation DEF: copying idea, but not word for word EX: President Roosevelt said we shouldn’t let fear stop us from doing great things. CLUE: giving the general idea, not in quotation marks
COMPARE & CONTRAST DEF: show similarities & differences EX: 7 th graders=more active adults = more lazy CLUE: same & not same
Question & Answer DEF: asks a question, gives an answer EX: Why are parents more grumpy than 7 th graders? Well, they’re grumpy because they have more stress & responsibility. CLUE: FAQ Q & A
PROBLEM & SOLUTION DEF: states a problems & suggests solutions EX: We are having trouble with people wearing skulls on their shirts. One solution is to only allow plain shirts as part of the dress code.
CAUSE & EFFECT DEF: cause = reason effect = result EX: If you spend all your money now, then you wont have any left for vacation. CLUE: If….. Then…..
CONTROLLING IDEA DEF: main idea of whole essay EX: Drunk driving kills people CLUE: controls the ideas – the big news!
TOPIC SENTENCE DEF: main idea of a paragraph EX: Drinking alcohol impairs a driver’s vision. Clue: top-ic sentences is at the top of the paragraph
CLINCHER SENTENCE DEF: last sentence in last paragraph EX: No one should ever drink & drive CLUE: cl-inch-er is the last inch of the essay
INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH DEF: first paragraph EX: a. it grabs reader’s attn. b. states controlling idea CLUE: introduces reader to essay
SUPPORTING PARAGRAPHS DEF: middle paragraphs EX: it adds details to support the controlling idea CLUE: support – hold up Controlling idea: He’s a clown. Supporting him? THE STILTS!
CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH DEF: last paragraph EX: It restates the controlling idea. It contains the clincher sentence. CLUE: conclu-ding final bell ! STOP!
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE DEF: dependent clause that describes a noun (tells what kind, which one, how many) EX: Jim is a man who likes to have fun. CLUE: starts with a relative pronoun! WHO WHOSE WHOM WHICH THAT
ADVERB CLAUSE DEF: dependent clause describing a verb (tells where, when, why, how, or to what extent) EX: I grabbed food when I left. He drove because it was fun. CLUE: starts with AAAWWUUBBIS words AAAWWUUBBISAAAWWUUBBIS