Presentation on theme: "THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SENTENCES"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SENTENCES Phrases and ClausesTHE BUILDING BLOCKSOF SENTENCES
2 a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb PHRASEa group of words that does not have both a subject and a verbEx. leaving behind the dogsmashing into the fence
3 CLAUSE Ex. Because she smiled at him a group of words with both a subject & verbEx. Because she smiled at himI despise individuals with low character.
4 Types of PhrasesPrepositional phrases – starts with a preposition, ends with a noun Ex. Into the kitchen Write a sentence on your own using a prepositional phrase.
5 Types of PhrasesAppositive phrase – a noun or pronoun next to another noun or pronoun to explain it Ex. A talented musician, Marc, plays in the school band. Write your own sentence using an appositive phrase, then complete exercise 13 (1-10) on page 159.
6 Types of PhrasesParticiple phrase – looks like a verb, but acts like an adjective. (present participle ends in -ing, past participle ends in -ed)Ex. Seeing itself in the mirror, the cat was frightened. (Present participle)Ex. Disgusted with the image, the cat arched his back. (Past participle)Write a sentence with a participle phrase, and then complete exercise 6 (1-10) on page 150.
7 Types of PhrasesGerund Phrase – looks like a verb, but acts like a noun (Ends in –ing) Ex. The frantic darting of the fish indicated a shark was nearby. Write a sentence using a gerund phrase, then complete practice exercise on pg 153 Exercise 8 (1-10)
8 Infinitive Phrase – a verb following ‘to’ and can be used as noun, adj, or adv Ex. The person to win the prize will give the correct response. In this case (used as adj)Write a sentence using an infinitive phrase, then complete exercise 11 (1-10) on page 156.
9 a complete thought that can stand alone. INDEPENDENT CLAUSEa complete thought that can stand alone.Ex. I despise individuals with low character.
10 DEPENDENT CLAUSEgroup of words with both a subject and verb; cannot stand alone or it is a fragment.Ex. Because she smiled at him,…
11 Independent clauses = a foundation and the frame of the house.
12 dependent clauses = like the windows or doors (they enhance what is already there, but can’t function alone)
13 Independent vs Dependent Independent – Is a complete thought. The sentence can stand alone. Ex. I like eating hamburgers every night. Dependent – Is not a complete thought. The sentence can not stand alone Ex. Eating hamburgers for dinner every night
14 Examples of Dependent Sentences 1. After I danced,2. Because he was hungry,3. Until I get an A+,4. When I get my new pony,5. Since I love SpongeBob,
15 Examples of Independent Sentences I watch Spongebob everyday.I go outside to ride my bike, and I watch Spongebob daily.Since Spongebob does not come on in the morning, I go outside to ride my bike.Although I like to watch Spongebob, the show does not come on in the morning so I go outside and ride my bike.
16 one independent clause SIMPLE SENTENCEone independent clauseI like SpongeBob.Write 5 simple sentencesabout spongeBob.
17 Punctuating COMPOUND sentences 2 or more independent clauses I like SpongeBob, and I like Plankton.
18 2 or more independent clauses OR – punctuate this way2 or more independent clausesI like SpongeBob; I like Plankton.
19 How do we punctuate compound sentences? 1.) Comma and a conjunction (FANBOYS)2. ) Semicolon (;)SpongeBob makes Krabby patties.(join these)They are quite delicious!Write 5 compound sentences about SpongeBob
20 Two ways to punctuate compound sentences! SpongeBob makes Krabby patties,and they are delicious.SpongeBob makes Krabby patties; they are delicious.
21 dependent + independent Because he makes me laugh, COMPLEXdependent + independentBecause he makes me laugh,I like SpongeBob.
22 DEPENDENT CLAUSE starters ADVERB STARTERSafter in order that untilalthough since whenas so that wheneverbecause than wherebefore though whereverif unless while
24 What’s the difference?AdjectiveAdjective phraseAdjective clause
25 An adjective is a word that modifies or describes a noun Ex. Spongebob is an experienced fry cook.experienced describes the type of fry cook Spongebob is.Write 5 sentences with adjectives. Underline the noun; circle the adjective.
26 An adjective phrase is a group of words that acts like an adjective. Ex. Spongebob is a fry cook with a lot of experience.With a lot of experience is a phrase describing Spongebeb.Write 5 sentences using adjective phrases that describes a noun. Underline the noun; circle the adjective phrase
27 Ex. Spongebob, who loves the Krusty Krab, is never late for work. Adjective clause – contains subject and verb, and begins with relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that or which)Ex. Spongebob, who loves the Krusty Krab, is never late for work.Adjective clause, who loves the Krusty Crab, cannot stand alone as a sentence.Write 5 sentences with adjective clauses. Underline the noun;circle the adjective clause
28 Dependent clause punctuation Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a sentence!Because he makes me laugh,I like SpongeBob.
29 Dependent clause punctuation Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a sentenceWhen I want entertainment, I watch SpongeBob.
30 Dependent clause punctuation Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a sentenceIf I get a choice of shows,I watch SpongeBob.
31 Dependent clause punctuation Do not use a comma when the dependent clause does not begin the sentence!I like SpongeBob because he makes me laugh.
32 When Gary runs away from home, Here’s my example!When Gary runs away from home,SpongeBob is devastated.SpongeBob is devastatedwhen Gary runs awayfrom home.
33 Write two more complex sentences! Use the dependent clause starter: ifIf you are hungry,you should visit the Krusty Krab!You should visit the Krusty Krabif you are hungry.
34 Now, write 5 complex sentences! Start a sentence with the dependent clause.Then, rewrite the sentence to end with the dependent clause.Use the dependent clausestarters: when, because, if, since, and althoughRemember, your clause must have a subject and a verb!
35 Could you turn our complex sentence into a compound-complex sentence? If you are hungry,you should visit the Krusty Krab!
37 EXAMPLES I like SpongeBob, and I like Plankton. Because they make me laugh,I like SpongeBob,and I like Plankton.
38 Turn these clauses into complex sentences Patrick is annoying…Plankton wants the Krabby Patty recipe…The Hashslinging Slasher visits
39 COMMAS AFTER INTRODUCTORY WORDS AFTER INTRODUCTORY PHRASES AFTER INTRODUCTORY CLAUSESBETWEEN 2 INDEPENDENT CLAUSESBEFORE THE CONJUNCTION
40 Introductory Words Unfortunately, I love chocolate. Therefore, I eat it often.Also, I like ice cream.But, I am allergic to it.Thus, I should not eat it.Once, I saw a Yettie.Next, I saw Bigfoot.Finally, I caught a leprechaun!
41 Introductory Phrases To be or not to be, that is the question. Inside the small garden, there is a gnome.(prep phrases of 4 or more)
42 Introductory Dependent Clauses When I grow up, …Before I become president, …Since I am so short, …Until I study for my test, …
43 BETWEEN INDEPENDENT St. Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, but he was originally British.St. Patrick was captured by Irish raiders, and he worked as a slave for 6 years.St. Patrick had a dream to escape, so he walked 200 miles to the shore.
44 What’s the difference between a phrase & a clause?
45 On your own Write a phrase Write a clause Write a simple sentence Write a compound sentenceWrite a complex sentenceWrite a compound-complex sentence
46 Book ExercisesSimple Sentences pg. 186 Compound Sentences pg. 189 Complex Sentences pg. 192 Compound-Complex Sentences pg. 194 Review A and B, and Chapter Review pgs