Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: Learning (Behaviorism)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 5: Learning (Behaviorism) WHS AP PsychologyUnit 5: Learning (Behaviorism)Essential Task 5-6: Apply learning principles to explain phobias, taste aversion, superstitious behavior, learned helplessness, and biofeedback.Logo Green is R=8 G=138 B= Blue is R= 0 G=110 B=184Border Grey is R=74 G=69 B=64
2 Social Cognitive Learning Theory Learning The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behaviorWe are hereClassicalConditioningThe type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes to be elicited by a different formally neutral stimulusOperantConditioningThe type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishmentsSocial Cognitive Learning TheoryThe type of learning in which behaviors are learned by observing a modelPavlov and WatsonB.F. SkinnerAlbert BanduraUCS, UCR, CS, CRReinforcement and PunishmentModeling and Vicarious Learning
4 Examples of Classical Conditioning PhobiasAfter the attacks, cats become a warning stimulus for pain causing fear when the child sees cats.After this botched photo, 6 ft bunny becomes warning stimulus for someone trying to capture you.
5 Systematic Desensitization This therapy aims to remove the fear response of a phobia, and substitute a relaxation response to the conditional stimulus gradually using counter conditioning.This is done by forming a hierarchy of fear, involving the conditioned stimulus (e.g. a spider), that are ranked from least fearful to most fearful. The patient works their way up starting at the least unpleasant and practicing their relaxation technique as they go. When they feel comfortable with this (they are no longer afraid) they move on to the next stage in the hierarchy.
6 Examples of Classical Conditioning Taste AversionAfter throwing up a food, it becomes a warning stimulus for getting sick.
7 Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals. Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ in their learning.However, behaviorists later suggested that learning is constrained by an animal’s biology.Each species’ predispositions prepare it to learn the associations that enhance its survival.OBJECTIVE 7| Describe some of the ways that biological predisposition can affect learning by classical conditioning.
8 Biological Predisposition Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive.Breland and Breland (1961) showed that animals drift towards their biologically predisposed instinctive behaviors.OBJECTIVE 17| Explain how biological predisposition place limits on what can be achieved through operant conditioning.Photo: Bob BaileyMarian Breland Bailey
9 Biological Predispositions Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning and not to others (light or sound).Taste AversionCourtesy of John GarciaJohn Garcia
10 Examples of operant conditioning Superstitious BehaviorYou do things you know have no real impact on reality because that one time you did it, the team won.
11 Learned HelplessnessLearned helplessness is a mental state that arises in an organism that believes punishment is inescapable.The organism stops trying even when success can be obtained.
12 Seligman and Maieran animal is repeatedly exposed to an aversive stimulus which it cannot escape. Eventually, the animal stops trying to avoid the stimulus and behaves as if it is helpless to change the situation. When opportunities to escape become available, learned helplessness means the animal does not take any action.
13 Even when they can be successful, they won’ try.
14 Behavioral Change Using Biofeedback Biofeedback is an operant technique that teaches people to gain voluntary control over bodily processes like heart rate and blood pressureWhen used to control brain activity it is called neurofeedback