Presentation on theme: "WHS AP Psychology Unit 5: Learning (Behaviorism) Essential Task 5-6: Apply learning principles to explain phobias, taste aversion, superstitious behavior,"— Presentation transcript:
WHS AP Psychology Unit 5: Learning (Behaviorism) Essential Task 5-6: Apply learning principles to explain phobias, taste aversion, superstitious behavior, learned helplessness, and biofeedback.
Learning The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior Classical Conditioning The type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes to be elicited by a different formally neutral stimulus Operant Conditioning The type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishments Social Cognitive Learning Theory The type of learning in which behaviors are learned by observing a model Pavlov and Watson B.F. SkinnerAlbert Bandura UCS, UCR, CS, CR Reinforcement and Punishment Modeling and Vicarious Learning We are here
Examples of Classical Conditioning Phobias After the attacks, cats become a warning stimulus for pain causing fear when the child sees cats. After this botched photo, 6 ft bunny becomes warning stimulus for someone trying to capture you.
Systematic Desensitization This therapy aims to remove the fear response of a phobia, and substitute a relaxation response to the conditional stimulus gradually using counter conditioning. This is done by forming a hierarchy of fear, involving the conditioned stimulus (e.g. a spider), that are ranked from least fearful to most fearful. The patient works their way up starting at the least unpleasant and practicing their relaxation technique as they go. When they feel comfortable with this (they are no longer afraid) they move on to the next stage in the hierarchy.
Examples of Classical Conditioning Taste Aversion After throwing up a food, it becomes a warning stimulus for getting sick.
Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals. Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ in their learning. However, behaviorists later suggested that learning is constrained by an animal’s biology. Each species’ predispositions prepare it to learn the associations that enhance its survival.
Biological Predisposition Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. Breland and Breland (1961) showed that animals drift towards their biologically predisposed instinctive behaviors. Marian Breland Bailey Photo: Bob Bailey
Biological Predispositions John Garcia Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning and not to others (light or sound). Taste Aversion Courtesy of John Garcia
Examples of operant conditioning Superstitious Behavior You do things you know have no real impact on reality because that one time you did it, the team won.
Learned Helplessness Learned helplessness is a mental state that arises in an organism that believes punishment is inescapable. The organism stops trying even when success can be obtained.
Seligman and Maier an animal is repeatedly exposed to an aversive stimulus which it cannot escape. Eventually, the animal stops trying to avoid the stimulus and behaves as if it is helpless to change the situation. When opportunities to escape become available, learned helplessness means the animal does not take any action.
Even when they can be successful, they won’ try.
Behavioral Change Using Biofeedback Biofeedback is an operant technique that teaches people to gain voluntary control over bodily processes like heart rate and blood pressure When used to control brain activity it is called neurofeedback