Classical Conditioning: More Terminology Trial = pairing of UCS and CS Acquisition = initial stage in learning Stimulus contiguity = occurring together in time and space 3 types of Classical Conditioning –Simultaneous conditioning: CS and UCS begin and end together –Short-delayed conditioning: CS begins just before the UCS, end together –Trace conditioning: CS begins and ends before UCS is presented Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life –Conditioned fears –Other conditioned emotional responses –Conditioning and physiological responses –Conditioning and drug effects –
Table of Contents Processes in Classical Conditioning Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Generalization Discrimination Higher-order conditioning Applications of classical conditioning and persuasion
Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Learning Edward L. Thorndike (1913) – the law of effect – puzzle box and learning curve B.F. Skinner (1953) – principle of reinforcement –Operant chamber – “Skinner Box” – –Emission of response –Reinforcement contingencies – antecedents, behaviors, and consequences (ABC) –Cumulative recorder –
Table of Contents Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Intermittent (partial) reinforcement Ratio schedules –Fixed –Variable Interval schedules –Fixed –Variable Schedules of reinforcement and everyday life –
Consequences: Reinforcement and Punishment Increasing a response: –Positive reinforcement = response followed by rewarding stimulus –Negative reinforcement = response followed by removal of an aversive stimulus Escape learning Avoidance learning Decreasing a response: –Punishment –Problems with punishment – third variable problem and correlation between punishment and aggression –
Table of Contents Observational Learning and the Media Violence Controversy Studies demonstrate that exposure to TV and movie violence increases the likelihood of physical aggression, verbal aggression, aggressive thoughts, and aggressive emotions The association between media violence and aggression is nearly as great as the correlation between smoking and cancer – third variable problem
Table of Contents Comparison of the relationship between media violence and aggression to other correlations.