Presentation on theme: "WHS AP Psychology Unit 5: Learning (Behaviorism) Essential Task 5-2: Describe basic classical conditioning phenomena with specific attention to unconditioned."— Presentation transcript:
WHS AP Psychology Unit 5: Learning (Behaviorism) Essential Task 5-2: Describe basic classical conditioning phenomena with specific attention to unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, neutral stimulus, pairing, acquisition, conditioned stimulus, conditioned response, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, stimulus discrimination, contingency, and higher-order learning.
Learning The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior Classical Conditioning The type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes to be elicited by a different formally neutral stimulus Operant Conditioning The type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishments Social Cognitive Learning Theory The type of learning in which behaviors are learned by observing a model Pavlov and Watson B.F. SkinnerAlbert Bandura UCS, UCR, CS, CR Reinforcement and Punishment Modeling and Vicarious Learning We are here
Classical Conditioning Book definition: The type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes to be elicited by a different formally neutral stimulus. Working definition: –Type of learning that happens TO someone –Person learns to respond to a stimulus. –Previously the stimulus meant nothing. –Now it means something IS ABOUT TO HAPPEN. Outline
Examples of Classical Conditioning Phobias After the attacks, cats become a warning stimulus for pain causing fear when the child sees cats. After this botched photo, 6 ft bunny becomes warning stimulus for someone trying to capture you.
Examples of Classical Conditioning Taste Aversion After throwing up a food, it becomes a warning stimulus for getting sick.
Examples of Classical Conditioning Using Sex to Sell Advertisers pair their product with sexual imagery hoping that the product will become a ‘promising stimulus’ for sexual arousal. Hopefully this connection makes you grab their product off the self.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) A stimulus that invariably causes an organism to responds in a specific way Outline
Unconditioned response (UCR) A response that takes place in an organisms whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs
Neutral Stimulus A stimulus that does not naturally cause a response in the organism.
Pairing Presenting the organism with the CS and then the UCS multiple times.
Acquisition refers to the first stages of learning when a response is established. In classical conditioning, it refers to the period of time when the stimulus comes to evoke the conditioned response.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) An originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus an eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone.
Conditioned Response (CR) After conditioning, the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented.
Stimulus Generalization the transfer of a learned response to different but similar stimulus.
Stimulus Discrimination learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli.
Extinction Extinction is a decrease in the strength or frequency of a learned response because of no longer pairing the US and CS
Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without further conditioning
Contingency Theory of Classical Conditioning For Pavlov, the key variable in associative learning was the number of times the CS was paired with the US. As the number of pairings increases, the strength of the association between CS and US increases. The Pairings Principle: This was because the CS became a more reliable signal that the US was going to occur.
Contingency Theory of Classical Conditioning In the 1960s, an alternative theory was proposed by Robert A. Rescorla, the Contingency Theory. Rescorla agreed with Pavlov that for learning to take place, the CS had to be a useful predictor of the US. But he disagreed on what made the CS a useful predictor. It was more complicated than the number of CS-US pairings. He maintained that it was the contingency OR THE CONNECTION between the CS and US.
Higher Order Learning in Classical Conditioning Also known as second order conditioning. A form of learning in which a stimulus is first made meaningful or consequential for an organism through an initial step of learning, and then that stimulus is used as a basis for learning about some new stimulus. For example, an animal might first learn to associate a bell with food (first-order conditioning), but then learn to associate a light with the bell (second-order conditioning).